Government of Canada / Gouvernement du Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada

Search

Canadian Aviation Regulations (SOR/96-433)

Regulations are current to 2023-03-20 and last amended on 2022-12-21. Previous Versions

Part VI — General Operating and Flight Rules (continued)

Subpart 4 — Private Operators (continued)

Division IV — Flight Operations — Special Authorizations (continued)

Take-off Minima

 Despite paragraph 602.126(1)(b),

  • (a) a pilot-in-command may conduct a take-off in an aircraft operated by a private operator when the reported RVR is at least 1,200 feet or the reported ground visibility is at least one quarter of a statute mile if

    • (i) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization,

    • (ii) the aircraft is operated by at least two flight crew members,

    • (iii) the flight plan filed for the flight specifies a take-off alternate aerodrome that

      • (A) in the case of a twin-engined aircraft, is within the distance that can be flown in 60 minutes at normal cruising speed, or

      • (B) in the case of an aircraft with three or more engines, is within the distance that can be flown in 120 minutes at normal cruising speed,

    • (iv) the pilot-in-command and, if the operations manual provides that the second-in-command may conduct the take-off, the second-in-command have received the following training for which the validity period has not expired:

      • (A) take-off alternate aerodrome requirements,

      • (B) pilot-in-command experience requirements,

      • (C) pilot-in-command responsibility for visibility and obstacle clearance requirements, and

      • (D) minimum aircraft and runway equipment requirements,

    • (v) the pilot-in-command

      • (A) identifies any obstructions that may be in the take-off path,

      • (B) determines — using the aircraft performance data and limitations specified in the aircraft flight manual — that the aircraft is, with the critical engine inoperative, able to

        • (I) safely clear those obstructions, and

        • (II) maintain at least the minimum enroute altitude to the take-off alternate aerodrome, and

      • (C) verifies that the RVR is at least 1,200 feet or the ground visibility is at least one quarter of a statute mile,

    • (vi) the runway is equipped with high-intensity runway lights, or runway centre line lights, that are serviceable and functioning and that are visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run, or with runway centre line markings that are visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run,

    • (vii) the pilot-in-command and second-in-command attitude indicators provide a clear depiction of total aircraft attitude that includes the incorporation of pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments up to 15° above and 15° below the reference line,

    • (viii) failure warning systems to immediately detect failures and malfunctions in attitude indicators, directional gyros and horizontal situation indicators are operative, and

    • (ix) the pilot-in-command and, if the operations manual provides that the second-in-command may conduct the take-off, the second-in-command have demonstrated to the private operator the ability to operate the aircraft in accordance with this paragraph; and

  • (b) a pilot-in-command may conduct a take-off in an aircraft operated by a private operator when the reported RVR is at least 600 feet if

    • (i) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization,

    • (ii) the aircraft is operated by at least two flight crew members,

    • (iii) the flight plan filed for the flight specifies a take-off alternate aerodrome that

      • (A) in the case of a twin-engined aircraft, is within the distance that can be flown in 60 minutes at normal cruising speed, or

      • (B) in the case of an aircraft with three or more engines, is within the distance that can be flown in 120 minutes at normal cruising speed,

    • (iv) the pilot-in-command and, if the operations manual provides that the second-in-command may conduct the take-off, the second-in-command have received the following training for which the validity period has not expired:

      • (A) ground training in

        • (I) take-off alternate aerodrome requirements,

        • (II) pilot-in-command experience requirements,

        • (III) pilot-in-command responsibility for visibility and obstacle clearance requirements, and

        • (IV) minimum aircraft and runway equipment requirements, and

      • (B) level C or D flight simulator training that includes

        • (I) one completed take-off at an RVR of 600 feet, and

        • (II) one rejected take-off, at an RVR of 600 feet, that includes an engine failure,

    • (v) the pilot-in-command

      • (A) identifies any obstructions that may be in the take-off path,

      • (B) determines — using the aircraft performance data and limitations specified in the aircraft flight manual — that the aircraft is, with the critical engine inoperative, able to

        • (I) safely clear those obstructions, and

        • (II) maintain at least the minimum enroute altitude to the take-off alternate aerodrome, and

      • (C) verifies that the RVR is at least 600 feet,

    • (vi) the runway is equipped

      • (A) with high-intensity runway lights, and runway centre line lights, that are serviceable and functioning and that are visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run, and with runway centre line markings that are visible to the pilot throughout the take-off run, and

      • (B) with two RVR sensors that each show an RVR of at least 600 feet, one sensor being situated at the approach end of the runway and the other at

        • (I) the mid-point of the runway, or

        • (II) the departure end of the runway, if the runway is equipped with three RVR sensors and the sensor situated at the mid-point is not serviceable,

    • (vii) the pilot-in-command and second-in-command attitude indicators provide a clear depiction of total aircraft attitude that includes the incorporation of pitch attitude index lines in appropriate increments up to 15° above and 15° below the reference line,

    • (viii) failure warning systems to immediately detect failures and malfunctions in attitude indicators, directional gyros and horizontal situation indicators are operative, and

    • (ix) the pilot-in-command and, if the operations manual provides that the second-in-command may conduct the take-off, the second-in-command have demonstrated to the private operator the ability to operate the aircraft in accordance with this paragraph.

Instrument Procedures — GNSS

 No person shall conduct an instrument procedure using a GNSS receiver in an aircraft operated by a private operator unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization;

  • (b) every flight crew member has received the following training for which the validity period has not expired:

    • (i) ground training in

      • (A) the GNSS and its theory of operation,

      • (B) the operation of the model of GNSS receiver that will be used, and

      • (C) the actions to be taken in response to GNSS receiver warnings and messages, and

    • (ii) in-flight training

      • (A) in the operation of the model of GNSS receiver that will be used,

      • (B) in the actions to be taken in response to GNSS receiver warnings and messages,

      • (C) in the use of the GNSS receiver for instrument procedures and other associated duties for each crew position that the flight crew member will occupy,

      • (D) provided

        • (I) on board an aircraft, or

        • (II) using a Level C or D flight simulator equipped with the same model of GNSS receiver as is installed in the private operator’s aircraft or with a model with a user interface comparable to the user interface of that GNSS receiver, and

      • (E) provided by a pilot who has received training on the same model of GNSS receiver as is installed in the private operator’s aircraft or on a model with a user interface comparable to the user interface of that GNSS receiver;

  • (c) every flight crew member has demonstrated to the private operator the ability to conduct an instrument approach using a GNSS receiver in accordance with this section;

  • (d) the coverage area of the GNSS receiver database is compatible with the area of operation in which the aircraft will be operated;

  • (e) the private operator has established procedures to ensure that

    • (i) the GNSS receiver database is updated so that it remains current,

    • (ii) flight crew members who identify GNSS receiver database errors communicate those errors to the private operator, and

    • (iii) the GNSS receiver database errors identified are communicated to the private operator’s other personnel and to the GNSS receiver database provider;

  • (f) if the aircraft is designed to be operated by one flight crew member, the GNSS course deviation and distance displays are located at the pilot station normally occupied by the pilot-in-command and within the primary field of vision of the flight crew member who occupies the pilot station;

  • (g) if the aircraft is designed to be operated by two flight crew members, the GNSS course deviation and distance displays are located at each pilot station and within the primary field of vision of the flight crew member who occupies the pilot station;

  • (h) if the aircraft is designed to be operated by one flight crew member, but can be operated by two flight crew members,

    • (i) the control display unit that is linked to the GNSS receiver is centrally located in relation to the two pilot stations and provides navigation information that is visible to the pilot not flying, or

    • (ii) the GNSS course deviation and distance displays are located at each pilot station and within the primary field of vision of the flight crew members who occupy those pilot stations; and

  • (i) the private operator has established GNSS approach procedures in order to prevent confusion between GNSS distance information and distance measuring equipment (DME) information.

  • SOR/2014-131, s. 18
Precision Approaches — CAT II and CAT III

 No person shall conduct a CAT II or a CAT III precision approach in an aircraft operated by a private operator unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization;

  • (b) the requirements of section 602.128 are met;

  • (c) every flight crew member has received, in respect of CAT II and CAT III precision approaches, ground training for which the validity period has not expired that includes the following elements:

    • (i) the characteristics, capabilities and limitations of the instrument landing system (ILS), including how its performance is affected by interference from other airborne or taxiing aircraft and from ground vehicles,

    • (ii) the characteristics of the visual aids and the limitations on their use in reduced visibility at the various glide path angles and cockpit cut-off angles, and the height at which visual cues are expected to appear in actual operating conditions,

    • (iii) the operation, capabilities and limitations of the airborne systems,

    • (iv) the procedures and techniques for an approach, a missed approach and a rejected landing, and a description of the factors affecting height loss during a missed approach in normal and abnormal aircraft configurations,

    • (v) the use and limitations of RVR, including the applicability of RVR readings from different positions along the runway,

    • (vi) obstacle limitation surfaces, obstacle-free zones, missed approach design criteria, obstacle clearance for a CAT II or CAT III precision approach, and obstacle clearance for a go-around and a rejected landing,

    • (vii) the effects of turbulence, precipitation and low level windshear,

    • (viii) the procedures and techniques for making the transition from instrument flight to visual flight in low RVR conditions, including the geometry of eye, wheel and antenna positions in relation to ILS reference datum height,

    • (ix) the actions to be taken if the required visual reference becomes inadequate when the aircraft is below the decision height, and the technique to be used for making the transition from visual flight to instrument flight if a go-around is necessary,

    • (x) the actions to be taken in the event of a failure of the approach and landing equipment above and below the decision height or alert height,

    • (xi) the recognition of a failure of the ground equipment, and the actions to be taken in the event of such a failure,

    • (xii) the factors to be taken into account in the determination of the decision height or alert height,

    • (xiii) the effect of aircraft malfunctions, including engine failure, on auto-throttle and auto-pilot performance,

    • (xiv) the procedures to be followed and the precautions to be taken while taxiing in reduced visibility, and

    • (xv) the standard operating procedures to be followed by flight crew members in normal, abnormal and emergency conditions;

  • (d) every flight crew member has received, in respect of CAT II and CAT III precision approaches, training on a synthetic flight training device that includes the following elements:

    • (i) two approaches, at least one of which is in an engine-out configuration if the aircraft is certified under Part V to perform in that configuration,

    • (ii) a missed approach from the lowest minima specified in the special authorization, or a rejected landing, as applicable,

    • (iii) an automatic landing or a manual landing from one of the approaches, as applicable, at the maximum crosswind authorized for the aircraft, and

    • (iv) for CAT III approaches based on the use of a fail-passive rollout control system, a manual rollout using visual references or a combination of visual and instrument references;

  • (e) every flight crew member has received, in respect of CAT II and CAT III precision approaches, training on a synthetic flight training device for which the validity period has not expired that includes the following elements:

    • (i) one precision approach resulting in a landing, and

    • (ii) a missed approach from the lowest minima specified in the special authorization, or a rejected landing, as applicable; and

  • (f) every flight crew member has demonstrated to the private operator the ability to operate the aircraft in accordance with this section.

Instrument Procedures — Restricted Canada Air Pilot

 No person shall, in an aircraft operated by a private operator, conduct an instrument procedure that is specified in the Restricted Canada Air Pilot for an aerodrome unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized to do so under a special authorization;

  • (b) the person conducts the procedure in accordance with the requirements set out in the Restricted Canada Air Pilot in respect of the procedure; and

  • (c) every flight crew member has received the training necessary to mitigate the risks or hazards associated with that procedure with respect to the safety of the aircraft, persons or property, and the validity period for that training has not expired.

  • SOR/2014-131, s. 18
CMNPS and RNPC Requirements

 No person shall file a flight plan indicating that an aircraft operated by a private operator can be operated in accordance with Canadian minimum navigation performance specifications (CMNPS) or required navigation performance capability (RNPC) unless

  • (a) the private operator is authorized under a special authorization to operate the aircraft in accordance with CMNPS or RNPC;

  • (b) every flight crew member has received CMNPS or RNPC training, for which the validity period has not expired, in

    • (i) normal operating procedures, including long-range navigation system pre-flight data entry and periodic cross-checking of the system position display against the aircraft position,

    • (ii) the method of monitoring and cross-checking the long-range navigation system that is coupled to the auto-pilot,

    • (iii) the actions to be taken in the event of a discrepancy among long-range navigation systems, and the method of determining which is the most accurate or reliable system,

    • (iv) contingency procedures,

    • (v) the actions to be taken in the event of a failure of one or more long-range navigation systems,

    • (vi) the procedure for manually updating long-range navigation systems,

    • (vii) airborne emergency procedures, including realignment, if applicable,

    • (viii) the procedure for regaining track after a deliberate or accidental deviation from the cleared track, and

    • (ix) RNAV systems; and

  • (c) the aircraft is equipped with at least two independent long-range navigation systems or is operated as follows:

    • (i) in the case of an aircraft equipped only with the radio navigation equipment referred to in paragraph 605.18(j), the aircraft is operated only on high level airways, and

    • (ii) in the case of an aircraft equipped with at least two independent navigation systems, one of which is a long-range navigation system, the aircraft is operated only in RNPC airspace

      • (A) on high level fixed RNAV routes,

      • (B) on direct routes that begin and end within the reception range of ground-based navigation aids, or

      • (C) on high level airways.

 
Date modified: