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Canadian Aviation Regulations (SOR/96-433)

Regulations are current to 2022-07-13 and last amended on 2022-03-06. Previous Versions

Part VII — Commercial Air Services (continued)

Subpart 5 — Airline Operations (continued)

Division III — Flight Operations (continued)

[705.49 to 705.53 reserved]

Division IV — Aircraft Performance Operating Limitations

Exceptions

 A person may operate an aircraft without complying with the requirements of this Division if the person

  • (a) is authorized to do so in an air operator certificate; and

  • (b) complies with the Commercial Air Service Standards.

General Requirements

 Any determination made for the purposes of sections 705.56 to 705.61 shall be based on approved performance data set out in the aircraft flight manual.

Take-off Weight Limitations
  •  (1) No person shall conduct a take-off in an aircraft if the weight of the aircraft

    • (a) exceeds the maximum take-off weight specified in the aircraft flight manual for the pressure-altitude and the ambient temperature at the aerodrome where the take-off is to be made; or

    • (b) after allowing for planned fuel consumption during the flight to the destination aerodrome or alternate aerodrome, exceeds the landing weight specified in the aircraft flight manual for the pressure-altitude and the ambient temperature at the destination aerodrome or alternate aerodrome.

  • (2) In the determination of the maximum take-off weight referred to in subsection (1) for an aeroplane,

    • (a) the required accelerate-stop distance shall not exceed the accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA);

    • (b) the required take-off run shall not exceed the take-off run available (TORA); and

    • (c) the required take-off distance shall not exceed the take-off distance available (TODA).

  • (3) For the purposes of subsection (2), the following factors shall be taken into account:

    • (a) the pressure-altitude at the aerodrome;

    • (b) the ambient temperature;

    • (c) the runway slope in the direction of take-off; and

    • (d) not more than 50 per cent of the reported headwind component or not less than 150 per cent of the reported tailwind component.

Net Take-off Flight Path
  •  (1) No person shall conduct a take-off in an aeroplane if the weight of the aeroplane is greater than the weight specified in the aircraft flight manual as allowing a net take-off flight path that clears all obstacles by at least 35 feet vertically or at least 200 feet horizontally within the aerodrome boundaries, and by at least 300 feet horizontally outside those boundaries.

  • (2) In the determination of the maximum weight, minimum distances and flight path referred to in subsection (1),

    • (a) corrections shall be made for

      • (i) the runway to be used,

      • (ii) the runway slope in the direction of take-off,

      • (iii) the pressure-altitude at the aerodrome,

      • (iv) the ambient temperature, and

      • (v) the wind component at the time of take-off, where not more than 50 per cent of the reported headwind component or not less than 150 per cent of the reported tailwind component is considered; and

    • (b) calculations shall be based on the pilot

      • (i) not banking the aeroplane before reaching an altitude of 50 feet,

      • (ii) subject to subsection (3), using 15 degrees or less of bank at or below 400 feet, and

      • (iii) using no more than 25 degrees of bank thereafter, aircraft speed and configuration permitting.

  • (3) A bank angle greater than the 15 degrees referred to in subparagraph (2)(b)(ii) may be used if it is authorized in an air operator certificate.

Enroute Limitations with One Engine Inoperative
  •  (1) No person shall conduct a take-off in an aeroplane if the weight of the aeroplane is greater than the weight that will allow the aeroplane to attain, with any engine inoperative, a net flight path that

    • (a) has a positive slope at 1,000 feet above all terrain and obstructions within five nautical miles on either side of the intended track, at all points along the route or planned diversion therefrom; or

    • (b) will permit flight from the cruising altitude to an aerodrome where the requirements of section 705.60 can be complied with, and clears vertically, by at least 2,000 feet, all terrain and obstructions within five nautical miles on either side of the intended track.

  • (2) For the purposes of subsection (1), the following factors shall be taken into account after an engine failure:

    • (a) the effects of wind and temperature on the net flight path; and

    • (b) the effects of fuel jettisoning, where the jettisoning is conducted in accordance with procedures set out in the company operations manual and sufficient fuel remains to complete a landing with the required fuel reserves.

Enroute Limitations with Two Engines Inoperative
  •  (1) No person shall operate an aeroplane having three or more engines unless

    • (a) all points along the intended track are located at a distance that can be flown in 90 minutes or less, with all engines operating at cruise power, from an aerodrome where the requirements of section 705.60 can be complied with; or

    • (b) the weight of the aeroplane is not greater than the weight that, according to the two-engines-inoperative enroute net flight path data shown in the aircraft flight manual, will allow the aeroplane to clear vertically, by at least 2,000 feet, all terrain and obstructions within five nautical miles on either side of the intended track, and thereafter to continue flight to an aerodrome where the requirements of section 705.60 can be complied with.

  • (2) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b), the following factors shall be taken into account after the failure of two engines:

    • (a) the effects of wind and temperature on the net flight path; and

    • (b) the effects of fuel jettisoning, where the jettisoning is conducted in accordance with procedures set out in the company operations manual and sufficient fuel remains to arrive at the destination aerodrome at 1,500 feet AGL with a fuel reserve sufficient to fly for 15 minutes thereafter at cruise power.

Dispatch Limitations: Landing at Destination and Alternate Aerodromes
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (3), no person shall dispatch or conduct a take-off in an aeroplane unless

    • (a) the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the destination aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing

      • (i) in the case of a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, within 60 per cent of the landing distance available (LDA), or

      • (ii) in the case of a propeller-driven aeroplane, within 70 per cent of the landing distance available (LDA); and

    • (b) the weight of the aeroplane on landing at the alternate aerodrome will allow a full-stop landing

      • (i) in the case of a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, within 60 per cent of the landing distance available (LDA), and

      • (ii) in the case of a propeller-driven aeroplane, within 70 per cent of the landing distance available (LDA).

  • (2) In determining whether an aeroplane can be dispatched or a take-off can be conducted in accordance with subsection (1), the following shall be taken into account:

    • (a) the pressure-altitude at the destination aerodrome and at the alternate aerodrome;

    • (b) not more than 50 per cent of the reported headwind component or not less than 150 per cent of the reported tailwind component; and

    • (c) that the aeroplane must be landed on a suitable runway, considering the wind speed and direction, the ground handling characteristics of the aeroplane, and other conditions such as landing aids and terrain.

  • (3) Where conditions at the destination aerodrome at the time of take-off do not permit compliance with paragraph (2)(c), an aeroplane may be dispatched and a take-off conducted if the alternate aerodrome designated in the operational flight plan permits, at the time of take-off, compliance with paragraph (1)(b) and subsection (2).

Dispatch Limitations: Wet Runway — Turbo-jet-powered Aeroplanes
  •  (1) Subject to subsection (2), when weather reports or forecasts indicate that the runway may be wet at the estimated time of arrival, no air operator shall dispatch or conduct a take-off in a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane unless the landing distance available (LDA) at the destination aerodrome is at least 115 per cent of the landing distance required pursuant to paragraph 705.60(1)(a).

  • (2) The landing distance available on a wet runway may be shorter than that required by subsection (1), but not shorter than that required by section 705.60, if the aircraft flight manual includes specific information about landing distances on wet runways.

[705.62 to 705.66 reserved]

Division V — Aircraft Equipment Requirements

General Requirements

 No person shall operate an aircraft unless the aircraft is equipped with

  • (a) two independent static pressure systems;

  • (b) a windshield wiper or rain removal system for each pilot station;

  • (c) heating or de-icing equipment for each carburetor or an alternate air source for each pressure carburetor or fuel injection system;

  • (d) a placard on each door that provides passenger access to a passenger emergency exit, stating that the door must be secured or locked open during take-off and landing; and

  • (e) a means for the crew, in an emergency, to unlock each door that leads to a compartment that is normally accessible to passengers and that can be locked by passengers.

Landing Lights

 No person shall operate an aircraft at night unless the aircraft is equipped with at least two landing lights.

Operation of Aircraft in Icing Conditions
  •  (1) When icing conditions are reported to exist or are forecast to be encountered along the route of flight, no person shall authorize a flight or its continuation or conduct a take-off or continue a flight in an aircraft, even if the pilot-in-command determines that the aircraft is adequately equipped to operate in icing conditions in accordance with paragraph 605.30(a), if, in the opinion of the pilot-in-command, the safety of the flight might be adversely affected.

  • (2) No person shall operate an aeroplane in icing conditions at night unless the aeroplane is equipped with a means to illuminate or otherwise detect the formation of ice.

  • SOR/2009-152, s. 22
Weather Radar Equipment

 No person shall operate an aircraft with passengers on board in IMC when current weather reports or forecasts indicate that thunderstorms may reasonably be expected along the route to be flown, unless the aircraft is equipped with weather radar equipment.

Protective Breathing Equipment
  •  (1) No air operator shall operate a pressurized aircraft unless, at each station listed in paragraph (3)(b), protective breathing equipment with a 15-minute supply of breathing gas at a pressure-altitude of 8,000 feet is provided in accordance with this section.

  • (2) The protective breathing equipment referred to in subsection (1) may be used to meet the crew member oxygen requirements specified in section 605.31.

  • (3) Protective breathing equipment shall be conveniently located and readily available

    • (a) with a fixed or portable breathing gas supply for use by each flight crew member on the flight deck; and

    • (b) with a portable breathing gas supply for use by crew members in combatting fires, as follows:

      • (i) one unit for use in each Class A, B and E cargo compartment that is accessible to crew members in the cabin during flight,

      • (ii) one unit for each hand-held fire extinguisher located in each isolated galley,

      • (iii) one unit on the flight deck,

      • (iv) one unit located within one metre of each hand-held fire extinguisher required in the passenger compartment by section 705.93, except if the Minister has authorized the location of protective breathing equipment more than one metre from each hand-held fire extinguisher where special circumstances exist that make compliance with this subparagraph impractical and that location provides an equivalent level of safety, and

      • (v) the number of units of protective breathing equipment used to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph shall not be less than the number of flight attendants required for the flight.

First Aid Oxygen

 No air operator shall operate a pressurized aircraft with passengers on board unless the aircraft is equipped with oxygen dispensing units and an undiluted supply of first aid oxygen sufficient to provide two per cent of the occupants, and in any case at least one person, with oxygen for one hour or the entire duration of the flight at a cabin pressure-altitude above 8,000 feet, after an emergency descent following cabin depressurization, whichever period is longer.

Interphone System

 No person shall operate an aircraft unless the aircraft is equipped with an interphone system that can be operated independently of the public address system required by section 705.74, except for handsets, headsets, microphones, selector switches and signalling devices.

Public Address System

 No person shall operate an aircraft with passengers on board unless the aircraft is equipped with a public address system that can be operated independently of the interphone system required by section 705.73, except for handsets, headsets, microphones, selector switches and signalling devices.

Crew Member Shoulder Harnesses

 No person shall operate an aircraft unless each pilot seat and the seat for each flight attendant required under section 705.201 is equipped with a safety belt that includes dual upper torso straps with a single-point release.

  • SOR/2015-127, s. 16
Lavatory Fire Protection

 No person shall operate an aircraft unless

  • (a) each lavatory in the aircraft is equipped with a smoke detector system or equivalent that provides

    • (i) a warning light in the cockpit, or

    • (ii) a warning light or audible warning in the passenger compartment that can be readily detected by a flight attendant, taking into consideration the positioning of flight attendants throughout the passenger compartment during the flight;

  • (b) each lavatory in the aircraft is equipped with a built-in fire extinguisher for each waste disposal receptacle that is installed in the lavatory, and each extinguisher is designed to discharge automatically into the disposal receptacle on the occurrence of a fire in that receptacle;

  • (c) a readily visible sign that clearly displays a symbol indicating that smoking is prohibited or the words “No Smoking” and “Défense de fumer” is installed above the door handle on both sides of the door to each lavatory in the aircraft;

  • (d) a readily visible sign that clearly displays a symbol indicating that cigarette disposal is prohibited or the words “No Cigarette Disposal” and “Défense de jeter des cigarettes” is installed adjacent to the opening of each waste disposal receptacle that is located in a lavatory in the aircraft; and

  • (e) a self-contained, removable ashtray is installed on or near the outside of the door to each lavatory in the aircraft or in some other location or locations where it is readily visible to the users of each lavatory from outside the lavatory.

Flammability Requirements for Aeroplane Seat Cushions

 No person shall operate an aeroplane for which an initial type certificate was issued after January 1, 1958 unless all passenger compartment seat cushions meet the standards respecting the fire protection of seat cushions set out in Chapter 525 of the Airworthiness Manual.

Floor Proximity Emergency Escape Path Markings

 No person shall operate, with passengers on board, an aeroplane for which an initial type certificate was issued after January 1, 1958 unless the aeroplane is provided with floor proximity emergency escape path markings that meet the standards set out in Chapter 525 of the Airworthiness Manual.

Flashlight Stowage

 No person shall operate an aircraft unless it is equipped with flashlight stowage provisions that are accessible from each required flight attendant seat.

Doors and Locks
  •  (1) Subject to subsections (3) and (4), no person shall operate an aeroplane in respect of which an initial type certificate was issued after January 1, 1958 unless the aeroplane is equipped with

    • (a) in the case of a passenger-carrying aeroplane,

      • (i) a door between the flight deck and the passenger compartment, and

      • (ii) if the aeroplane is equipped with a crew rest facility having an entry from the flight deck and a separate entry from the passenger compartment, a door between the crew rest facility and the passenger compartment; and

    • (b) in the case of an all-cargo aeroplane that was equipped with a flight deck door on January 15, 2002,

      • (i) a door between the flight deck and a compartment occupied by a person, and

      • (ii) if the aeroplane is equipped with a crew rest facility having an entry from the flight deck and a separate entry from a compartment occupied by a person, a door between the crew rest facility and the compartment.

  • (2) The doors required by subsection (1) shall be equipped with a locking device that can be unlocked only from inside the flight deck or the crew rest facility, as the case may be.

  • (3) A key shall be readily available to each crew member for each door that separates a passenger compartment or a compartment occupied by a person from an emergency exit, with the exception of a door required by subsection (1).

  • (4) No crew member, except a flight crew member, shall have a key to a door required by subsection (1) at any time from the moment the passenger entry doors are closed in preparation for departure until they are opened on arrival unless the locking device required by subsection (2) is installed and locked.

  • (5) No person shall operate an aeroplane that is required by subsection (1) to be equipped with a door unless

    • (a) each door meets the design requirements of section 525.795 of the Airworthiness Manual in effect on May 1, 2002; and

    • (b) the locking device required by subsection (2) and any other system used to control access to the flight deck can be operated from each flight crew member position.

  • SOR/2002-135, s. 3
  • SOR/2003-121, s. 4
 
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