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Federal Courts Rules (SOR/98-106)

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Regulations are current to 2021-10-07 and last amended on 2021-06-17. Previous Versions

PART 4Actions (continued)

Pleadings in an Action (continued)

General (continued)

Marginal note:Pleading after a reply

 No pleading may be filed after a reply without leave of the Court.

Marginal note:Form of pleadings

  •  (1) Pleadings shall be divided into consecutively numbered paragraphs.

  • Marginal note:Allegations set out separately

    (2) Every allegation in a pleading shall, as far as is practicable, be set out in a separate paragraph.

Marginal note:Material facts

 Every pleading shall contain a concise statement of the material facts on which the party relies, but shall not include evidence by which those facts are to be proved.

Marginal note:Pleading law

 A party may raise any point of law in a pleading.

Marginal note:Conditions precedent

  •  (1) The performance or occurrence of a condition precedent to the assertion of a claim or defence need not be pleaded.

  • Marginal note:Contesting condition precedent

    (2) The non-performance or non-occurrence of a condition precedent shall be pleaded.

Marginal note:Documents or conversations

 A pleading shall briefly describe any document or conversation referred to in the pleading, but need not set out the exact words of the document or conversation unless the words are themselves material.

Marginal note:Alternative claims or defences

 A party may plead claims or defences in the alternative.

Marginal note:Subsequent facts

 A party may plead a fact that occurs after the commencement of an action, even though the fact gives rise to a new claim or defence.

Marginal note:Inconsistent pleading

 A party may plead an allegation of fact, or raise a new ground of claim in a pleading, that is inconsistent with a previous pleading only if the party amends the previous pleading accordingly.

Marginal note:Particulars

  •  (1) A pleading shall contain particulars of every allegation contained therein, including

    • (a) particulars of any alleged misrepresentation, fraud, breach of trust, wilful default or undue influence; and

    • (b) particulars of any alleged state of mind of a person, including any alleged mental disorder or disability, malice or fraudulent intention.

  • Marginal note:Further and better particulars

    (2) On motion, the Court may order a party to serve and file further and better particulars of any allegation in its pleading

Statements of Claim

Marginal note:Claims to be specified

 Every statement of claim, counterclaim and third party claim shall specify

  • (a) the nature of any damages claimed;

  • (b) where monetary relief is claimed, whether the amount claimed, exclusive of interest and costs, exceeds $50,000;

  • (c) the value of any property sought to be recovered;

  • (d) any other specific relief being claimed, other than costs; and

  • (e) whether the action is being proceeded with as a simplified action.

Subsequent Pleadings

Marginal note:Admissions

 In a defence or subsequent pleading, a party shall

  • (a) admit every allegation of material fact in the pleadings of every adverse party that is not disputed;

  • (b) where it is intended to prove a version of facts that differs from that relied on by an adverse party, plead that version of the facts; and

  • (c) plead any matter or fact that

    • (i) might defeat a claim or defence of an adverse party, or

    • (ii) might take an adverse party by surprise if it were not pleaded.

Marginal note:Deemed denial

  •  (1) All allegations of fact in a pleading that are not admitted are deemed to be denied.

  • Marginal note:Proof not required

    (2) Unless denied by an adverse party, it is not necessary that a party prove

    • (a) its right to claim in a representative capacity; or

    • (b) its constitution as a partnership, association or corporation.

Marginal note:Effect of denial

 Where a party alleges an agreement in a pleading, a bare denial of the agreement pleaded by another party shall be construed only as a denial of the making of the agreement or of the facts from which such an agreement may be implied and not as a denial of the legality or legal sufficiency of the agreement.

Marginal note:Set-off

 Where a claim to a sum of money, including a sum that is not ascertained, is relied on as a defence to all or part of a claim made by an adverse party, it may be included in a defence as a set-off against the claim, whether or not it is also added as a counterclaim.

Marginal note:Judgment for balance

 Where judgments in an action and in a counterclaim are given at the same time, the Court may set off the amount of one award against the other, without prejudice as to costs.

Marginal note:Defence of tender

 Subject to section 31.2 of the Crown Liability and Proceedings Act, a defence of tender before action may not be pleaded unless the defendant has paid into court the amount alleged to have been tendered.


Marginal note:When available

  •  (1) A defendant who claims to be entitled to relief against a plaintiff may make a counterclaim instead of bringing a separate action.

  • Marginal note:Statement of defence and counterclaim

    (2) A counterclaim shall be included in the same document as the statement of defence.

  • Marginal note:Style of cause

    (3) A statement of defence and counterclaim shall contain a second style of cause identifying the plaintiff by counterclaim and the defendants to the counterclaim.

Marginal note:Counterclaim may proceed independently

 A counterclaim may be proceeded with notwithstanding that judgment is given in the action or that the action is stayed or discontinued.

Marginal note:Counterclaim against person not already a party

  •  (1) Where a defendant who counterclaims alleges that a person who is not a party to the action is liable to the defendant along with the plaintiff in respect of the subject-matter of the counterclaim, the defendant may join that person as a defendant to the counterclaim.

  • Marginal note:When counterclaim to be issued

    (2) Where a defendant adds a person who is not already a party as a defendant to a counterclaim, the defendant’s statement of defence and counterclaim shall be

    • (a) issued within the time set out in rule 204 for the service and filing of a statement of defence; and

    • (b) served on the person and on the other parties within 30 days after it is issued.

Marginal note:Defence to counterclaim

  •  (1) A defendant to a counterclaim who is already a party to the action shall defend the counterclaim by serving and filing a defence to counterclaim within 30 days after service of the statement of defence and counterclaim.

  • Marginal note:Reply and defence to counterclaim

    (2) A reply and a defence to counterclaim by a plaintiff against whom a counterclaim has been made shall be included in the same document.

Third Party Claims

Marginal note:Availability as of right

 A defendant may commence a third party claim against a co-defendant, or against a person who is not a party to the action, who the defendant claims is or may be liable to the defendant for all or part of the plaintiff’s claim.

Marginal note:Where leave of Court required

 With leave of the Court, a defendant may commence a third party claim against a co-defendant, or against another person who is not a defendant to the action, who the defendant claims

  • (a) is or may be liable to the defendant for relief, other than that referred to in rule 193, relating to the subject-matter of the action; or

  • (b) should be bound by the determination of an issue between the plaintiff and the defendant.

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