Government of Canada / Gouvernement du Canada
Symbol of the Government of Canada


Trust and Loan Companies Act (S.C. 1991, c. 45)

Act current to 2021-09-11 and last amended on 2021-06-30. Previous Versions

PART IIStatus and Powers (continued)

Marginal note:No invalidity

 No act of a company, including any transfer of property to or by a company, is invalid by reason only that the act or transfer is contrary to the company’s incorporating instrument or this Act.

Marginal note:By-law not necessary

 It is not necessary for a company to pass a by-law in order to confer any particular power on the company or its directors.

Marginal note:No personal liability

 The shareholders of a company are not, as shareholders, liable for any liability, act or default of the company except as otherwise provided by this Act.

Marginal note:No constructive notice

 No person is affected by or is deemed to have notice or knowledge of the contents of a document concerning a company by reason only that the document has been filed with the Superintendent or the Minister or is available for inspection at a branch of the company.

Marginal note:Authority of directors and officers

  •  (1) No company and no guarantor of an obligation of a company may assert against a person dealing with the company or against a person who has acquired rights from the company that

    • (a) the company’s incorporating instrument or any by-laws of the company have not been complied with;

    • (b) the persons named as directors of the company in the most recent return sent to the Superintendent under section 499 are not the directors of the company;

    • (c) the place named in the incorporating instrument or by-laws of the company is not the place where the head office of the company is situated;

    • (d) a person held out by the company as a director, officer or representative of the company has not been duly appointed or has no authority to exercise the powers and perform the duties that are customary in the business of the company or usual for a director, officer or representative; or

    • (e) a document issued by any director, officer or representative of the company with actual or usual authority to issue the document is not valid or not genuine.

  • Marginal note:Exception — knowledge

    (2) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of a person who has or ought to have knowledge of a situation described in that subsection by virtue of their relationship to the company.

  • 1991, c. 45, s. 19
  • 2005, c. 54, s. 371

Marginal note:Sunset provision

  •  (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (4), companies shall not carry on business after June 30, 2025.

  • Marginal note:Extension

    (2) The Governor in Council may, by order, extend by up to six months the time during which companies may continue to carry on business. No more than one order may be made under this subsection.

  • Marginal note:Order not a regulation

    (3) The order is not a regulation for the purposes of the Statutory Instruments Act. However, it shall be published in Part II of the Canada Gazette.

  • Marginal note:Exception — dissolution

    (4) If Parliament dissolves on the day set out in subsection (1) or on any day within the six-month period before that day or on any day within an extension ordered under subsection (2), companies may continue to carry on business until the end of the 180th day after the first day of the first session of the next Parliament.

  • 1991, c. 45, s. 20
  • 1997, c. 15, s. 341
  • 2001, c. 9, s. 484
  • 2006, c. 4, s. 202
  • 2007, c. 6, s. 338
  • 2012, c. 5, s. 163
  • 2016, c. 7, s. 117
  • 2018, c. 12, s. 354
  • 2021, c. 23, s. 153

PART IIIIncorporation, Continuance and Discontinuance

Formalities of Incorporation

Marginal note:Incorporation of company

 On the application of one or more persons made in accordance with this Act, the Minister may, subject to this Part, issue letters patent incorporating a company.

Marginal note:Restrictions on incorporation

 Letters patent incorporating a company may not be issued if the application therefor is made by or on behalf of

  • (a) Her Majesty in right of Canada or in right of a province, an agency of Her Majesty in either of those rights, or an entity controlled by Her Majesty in either of those rights;

  • (b) the government of a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof;

  • (c) an agency of the government of a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof; or

  • (d) an entity, other than a foreign institution or any subsidiary of a foreign institution, that is controlled by the government of a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof.

Marginal note:Subsidiary of foreign institution

 If a proposed company would be a subsidiary of a foreign institution that is engaged in trust or loan business and the application for letters patent to incorporate the company is made by a non-WTO Member foreign institution, letters patent to incorporate the company may not be issued unless the Minister is satisfied that treatment as favourable for companies to which this Act applies exists or will be provided in the jurisdiction in which the foreign institution principally carries on business, either directly or through a subsidiary.

  • 1991, c. 45, s. 23
  • 1999, c. 28, s. 138
  • 2001, c. 9, s. 485

Marginal note:Application for incorporation

  •  (1) An application for letters patent to incorporate a company setting out the names of the first directors of the company shall be filed with the Superintendent, together with such other information, material and evidence as the Superintendent may require.

  • Marginal note:Publishing notice of intent

    (2) Before filing an application referred to in subsection (1), the applicant or one of the applicants, as the case may be, shall, at least once a week for a period of four consecutive weeks, publish, in a form satisfactory to the Superintendent, a notice of intention to make the application in the Canada Gazette and in a newspaper in general circulation at or near the place where the head office of the company is to be situated.

Marginal note:Objections to incorporation

  •  (1) Any person who objects to the proposed incorporation of a company may, within thirty days after the date of the last publication under subsection 24(2) in respect of the proposed company, submit the objection in writing to the Superintendent.

  • Marginal note:Minister to be informed

    (2) On receipt of an objection under subsection (1), the Superintendent shall inform the Minister of the objection.

  • Marginal note:Inquiry into objection and report

    (3) On receipt of an objection under subsection (1), and if the application for the issuance of the letters patent to which the objection relates has been received, the Superintendent shall, if satisfied that it is necessary and in the public interest to do so, hold or cause to be held a public inquiry into the objection as it relates to the application and, on completion of the inquiry, the Superintendent shall report the findings of the inquiry to the Minister.

  • Marginal note:Report to be made available

    (4) Within thirty days after receiving a report under subsection (3), the Minister shall make the report available to the public.

  • Marginal note:Rules governing proceedings

    (5) Subject to the approval of the Governor in Council, the Superintendent may make rules governing the proceedings at public inquiries held under this section.

Marginal note:Matters for consideration

 Before issuing letters patent to incorporate a company, the Minister shall take into account all matters that the Minister considers relevant to the application, including

  • (a) the nature and sufficiency of the financial resources of the applicant or applicants as a source of continuing financial support for the company;

  • (b) the soundness and feasibility of the plans of the applicant or applicants for the future conduct and development of the business of the company;

  • (c) the business record and experience of the applicant or applicants;

  • (d) the character and integrity of the applicant or applicants or, if the applicant or any of the applicants is a body corporate, its reputation for being operated in a manner that is consistent with the standards of good character and integrity;

  • (e) whether the company will be operated responsibly by persons with the competence and experience suitable for involvement in the operation of a financial institution;

  • (f) the impact of any integration of the businesses and operations of the applicant or applicants with those of the company on the conduct of those businesses and operations; and

  • (g) the best interests of the financial system in Canada.

  • 1991, c. 45, s. 26
  • 2001, c. 9, s. 486
Date modified: