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Canada Business Corporations Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-44)

Act current to 2022-11-16 and last amended on 2022-08-31. Previous Versions

PART XXRemedies, Offences and Punishment (continued)

Marginal note:Evidence of shareholder approval not decisive

  •  (1) An application made or an action brought or intervened in under this Part shall not be stayed or dismissed by reason only that it is shown that an alleged breach of a right or duty owed to the corporation or its subsidiary has been or may be approved by the shareholders of such body corporate, but evidence of approval by the shareholders may be taken into account by the court in making an order under section 214, 240 or 241.

  • Marginal note:Court approval to discontinue

    (2) An application made or an action brought or intervened in under this Part shall not be stayed, discontinued, settled or dismissed for want of prosecution or, in Quebec, failure to respect the agreement between the parties as to the conduct of the proceeding without the approval of the court given on any terms that the court thinks fit and, if the court determines that the interests of any complainant may be substantially affected by such stay, discontinuance, settlement, dismissal or failure, the court may order any party to the application or action to give notice to the complainant.

  • Marginal note:No security for costs

    (3) A complainant is not required to give security for costs in any application made or action brought or intervened in under this Part.

  • Marginal note:Interim costs

    (4) In an application made or an action brought or intervened in under this Part, the court may at any time order the corporation or its subsidiary to pay to the complainant interim costs, including legal fees and disbursements, but the complainant may be held accountable for such interim costs on final disposition of the application or action.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 242
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 118(F)
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 69

Marginal note:Application to court to rectify records

  •  (1) If the name of a person is alleged to be or to have been wrongly entered or retained in, or wrongly deleted or omitted from, the registers or other records of a corporation, the corporation, a security holder of the corporation or any aggrieved person may apply to a court for an order that the registers or records be rectified.

  • Marginal note:Notice to Director

    (2) An applicant under this section shall give the Director notice of the application and the Director is entitled to appear and be heard in person or by counsel.

  • Marginal note:Powers of court

    (3) In connection with an application under this section, the court may make any order it thinks fit including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing,

    • (a) an order requiring the registers or other records of the corporation to be rectified;

    • (b) an order restraining the corporation from calling or holding a meeting of shareholders or paying a dividend before such rectification;

    • (c) an order determining the right of a party to the proceedings to have their name entered or retained in, or deleted or omitted from, the registers or records of the corporation, whether the issue arises between two or more security holders or alleged security holders, or between the corporation and any security holders or alleged security holders; and

    • (d) an order compensating a party who has incurred a loss.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 243
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 135(E)

Marginal note:Application for directions

 The Director may apply to a court for directions in respect of any matter concerning the Director’s duties under this Act, and on such application the court may give such directions and make such further order as it thinks fit.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 244
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 135(E)

Marginal note:Notice of refusal by Director

  •  (1) If the Director refuses to file any articles or other document that this Act requires the Director to file before the articles or other document become effective, the Director shall, within twenty days after receiving them or twenty days after receiving any approval that may be required under any other Act, whichever is later, give written notice of the refusal to the person who sent the articles or document, giving reasons.

  • Marginal note:Deemed refusal

    (2) If the Director does not file or give written notice of the refusal to file any articles or document within the time limited therefor in subsection (1), the Director is deemed for the purposes of section 246 to have refused to file the articles or document.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 245
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 135(E)

Marginal note:Appeal from Director’s decision

 A person who feels aggrieved by a decision of the Director referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (g) may apply to a court for an order, including an order requiring the Director to change the decision

  • (a) to refuse to file in the form submitted any articles or other document required by this Act to be filed;

  • (b) to give a name, to change or revoke a name, or to refuse to reserve, accept, change or revoke a name under section 12;

  • (c) to grant, or to refuse to grant, an exemption that may be granted under this Act and the regulations;

  • (d) to refuse under subsection 187(11) to permit a continued reference to shares having a nominal or par value;

  • (e) to refuse to issue a certificate of discontinuance under section 188 or a certificate attesting that as of a certain date the corporation exists under subsection 263.1(2);

  • (f) to issue, or to refuse to issue, a certificate of revival under section 209, or the decision with respect to the terms for revival imposed by the Director;

  • (f.1) to correct, or to refuse to correct, articles, a notice, a certificate or other document under section 265;

  • (f.2) to cancel, or to refuse to cancel, the articles and related certificate under section 265.1; or

  • (g) to dissolve a corporation under section 212.

The Court may make any order it thinks fit.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 246
  • 1999, c. 31, s. 65
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 119

Marginal note:Restraining or compliance order

 If a corporation or any director, officer, employee, agent or mandatary, auditor, trustee, receiver, receiver-manager, sequestrator or liquidator of a corporation does not comply with this Act, the regulations, articles or by-laws, or a unanimous shareholder agreement, a complainant or a creditor of the corporation may, in addition to any other right they have, apply to a court for an order directing any such person to comply with, or restraining any such person from acting in breach of, any provisions of this Act, the regulations, articles or by-laws, or a unanimous shareholder agreement, and on such application the court may so order and make any further order it thinks fit.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 247
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 135(E)
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 70(E)

Marginal note:Summary application to court

 Where this Act states that a person may apply to a court, the application may be made in a summary manner by petition, originating notice of motion, or otherwise as the rules of the court provide, and subject to any order respecting notice to interested parties or costs, or any other order the court thinks fit.

  • 1974-75-76, c. 33, s. 241
  • 1978-79, c. 9, s. 1(F)

Marginal note:Appeal of final order

  •  (1) An appeal lies to the court of appeal of a province from any final order made by a court of that province under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Appeal with leave

    (2) An appeal lies to the court of appeal of a province from any order other than a final order made by a court of that province, only with leave of the court of appeal in accordance with the rules applicable to that court.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 249
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 120

Marginal note:Offences with respect to reports

  •  (1) A person who makes or assists in making a report, return, notice or other document required by this Act or the regulations to be sent to the Director or to any other person that

    • (a) contains an untrue statement of a material fact, or

    • (b) omits to state a material fact required therein or necessary to make a statement contained therein not misleading in the light of the circumstances in which it was made

    is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.

  • Marginal note:Officers, etc., of bodies corporate

    (2) Where a body corporate commits an offence under subsection (1), any director or officer of the body corporate who knowingly authorized, permitted or acquiesced in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both, whether or not the body corporate has been prosecuted or convicted.

  • Marginal note:Immunity

    (3) No person is guilty of an offence under subsection (1) or (2) if the person did not know, and in the exercise of reasonable diligence could not have known, of the untrue statement or omission.

  • Marginal note:Register of individuals with significant control

    (4) For greater certainty, a register referred to in subsection 21.1(1) or an extract from it is not a report, return, notice or other document for the purposes of this section.

Marginal note:Offence

 Every person who, without reasonable cause, contravenes a provision of this Act or the regulations for which no punishment is provided is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • 1974-75-76, c. 33, s. 244
  • 1978-79, c. 9, s. 1(F)

Marginal note:Order to comply

  •  (1) Where a person is guilty of an offence under this Act or the regulations, any court in which proceedings in respect of the offence are taken may, in addition to any punishment it may impose, order that person to comply with the provisions of this Act or the regulations for the contravention of which the person has been convicted.

  • Marginal note:Limitation period

    (2) A prosecution for an offence under this Act may be instituted at any time within but not later than two years after the time when the subject-matter of the complaint arose.

  • Marginal note:Civil remedy not affected

    (3) No civil remedy for an act or omission is suspended or affected by reason that the act or omission is an offence under this Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 252
  • 2001, c. 14, s. 135(E)

PART XX.1Documents in Electronic or Other Form

Marginal note:Definitions

 The definitions in this section apply in this Part.

electronic document

electronic document means, except in section 252.6, any form of representation of information or of concepts fixed in any medium in or by electronic, optical or other similar means and that can be read or perceived by a person or by any means. (document électronique)

information system

information system means a system used to generate, send, receive, store, or otherwise process an electronic document. (système d’information)

  • 2001, c. 14, s. 121

Marginal note:Application

 This Part does not apply to a notice, document or other information sent to or issued by the Director pursuant to this Act or to any prescribed notice, document or other information.

  • 2001, c. 14, s. 121

Marginal note:Use not mandatory

  •  (1) Nothing in this Act or the regulations requires a person to create or provide an electronic document.

  • Marginal note:Consent and other requirements

    (2) Despite anything in this Part, a requirement under this Act or the regulations to provide a person with a notice, document or other information is not satisfied by the provision of an electronic document unless

    • (a) the addressee has consented, in the manner prescribed, and has designated an information system for the receipt of the electronic document; and

    • (b) the electronic document is provided to the designated information system, unless otherwise prescribed.

  • Marginal note:Revocation of consent

    (3) An addressee may revoke the consent referred to in paragraph (2)(a) in the manner prescribed.

  • 2001, c. 14, s. 121

Marginal note:Creation and provision of information

 A requirement under this Act or the regulations that a notice, document or other information be created or provided, is satisfied by the creation or provision of an electronic document if

  • (a) the by-laws or the articles of the corporation do not provide otherwise; and

  • (b) the regulations, if any, have been complied with.

  • 2001, c. 14, s. 121

Marginal note:Creation of information in writing

  •  (1) A requirement under this Act or the regulations that a notice, document or other information be created in writing is satisfied by the creation of an electronic document if, in addition to the conditions in section 252.4,

    • (a) the information in the electronic document is accessible so as to be usable for subsequent reference; and

    • (b) the regulations pertaining to this subsection, if any, have been complied with.

  • Marginal note:Provision of information in writing

    (2) A requirement under this Act or the regulations that a notice, document or other information be provided in writing is satisfied by the provision of an electronic document if, in addition to the conditions set out in section 252.4,

    • (a) the information in the electronic document is accessible by the addressee and capable of being retained by the addressee, so as to be usable for subsequent reference; and

    • (b) the regulations pertaining to this subsection, if any, have been complied with.

  • Marginal note:Copies

    (3) A requirement under this Act or the regulations for one or more copies of a document to be provided to a single addressee at the same time is satisfied by the provision of a single version of the electronic document.

  • Marginal note:Registered mail

    (4) A requirement under this Act or the regulations to provide a document by registered mail is not satisfied by the sending of an electronic document unless prescribed.

  • 2001, c. 14, s. 121
  • 2018, c. 8, s. 35(F)

Marginal note:Statutory declarations and affidavits

  •  (1) A statutory declaration or an affidavit required under this Act or the regulations may be created or provided in an electronic document if

    • (a) the person who makes the statutory declaration or affidavit signs it with his or her secure electronic signature;

    • (b) the authorized person before whom the statutory declaration or affidavit is made signs it with his or her secure electronic signature; and

    • (c) the requirements of sections 252.3 to 252.5 are complied with.

  • Marginal note:Definitions

    (2) For the purposes of this section, electronic document and secure electronic signature have the same meaning as in subsection 31(1) of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.

  • Marginal note:Clarification

    (3) For the purpose of complying with paragraph (1)(c), the references to an electronic document in sections 252.3 to 252.5 are to be read as references to an “electronic document” as defined in subsection 31(1) of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act.

  • 2001, c. 14, s. 121
 
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