Canada Business Corporations Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-44)
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Act current to 2023-03-06 and last amended on 2022-08-31. Previous Versions
PART XIIShareholders (continued)
139 (1) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, a quorum of shareholders is present at a meeting of shareholders, irrespective of the number of persons actually present at the meeting, if the holders of a majority of the shares entitled to vote at the meeting are present in person or represented by proxy.
Marginal note:Opening quorum sufficient
(2) If a quorum is present at the opening of a meeting of shareholders, the shareholders present may, unless the by-laws otherwise provide, proceed with the business of the meeting, notwithstanding that a quorum is not present throughout the meeting.
(3) If a quorum is not present at the opening of a meeting of shareholders, the shareholders present may adjourn the meeting to a fixed time and place but may not transact any other business.
Marginal note:One shareholder meeting
(4) If a corporation has only one shareholder, or only one holder of any class or series of shares, the shareholder present in person or by proxy constitutes a meeting.
- 1974-75-76, c. 33, s. 133
- 1978-79, c. 9, ss. 1(F), 41
Marginal note:Right to vote
140 (1) Unless the articles otherwise provide, each share of a corporation entitles the holder thereof to one vote at a meeting of shareholders.
(2) If a body corporate or association is a shareholder of a corporation, the corporation shall recognize any individual authorized by a resolution of the directors or governing body of the body corporate or association to represent it at meetings of shareholders of the corporation.
Marginal note:Powers of representative
(3) An individual authorized under subsection (2) may exercise on behalf of the body corporate or association all the powers it could exercise if it were an individual shareholder.
Marginal note:Joint shareholders
(4) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, if two or more persons hold shares jointly, one of those holders present at a meeting of shareholders may in the absence of the others vote the shares, but if two or more of those persons who are present, in person or by proxy, vote, they shall vote as one on the shares jointly held by them.
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 140
- 2001, c. 14, s. 135(E)
141 (1) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, voting at a meeting of shareholders shall be by show of hands except where a ballot is demanded by a shareholder or proxyholder entitled to vote at the meeting.
(2) A shareholder or proxyholder may demand a ballot either before or after any vote by show of hands.
Marginal note:Electronic voting
(3) Despite subsection (1), unless the by-laws otherwise provide, any vote referred to in subsection (1) may be held, in accordance with the regulations, if any, entirely by means of a telephonic, electronic or other communication facility, if the corporation makes available such a communication facility.
Marginal note:Voting while participating electronically
(4) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, any person participating in a meeting of shareholders under subsection 132(4) or (5) and entitled to vote at that meeting may vote, in accordance with the regulations, if any, by means of the telephonic, electronic or other communication facility that the corporation has made available for that purpose.
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 141
- 2001, c. 14, s. 61
Marginal note:Resolution in lieu of meeting
142 (1) Except where a written statement is submitted by a director under subsection 110(2) or by an auditor under subsection 168(5),
(a) a resolution in writing signed by all the shareholders entitled to vote on that resolution at a meeting of shareholders is as valid as if it had been passed at a meeting of the shareholders; and
(b) a resolution in writing dealing with all matters required by this Act to be dealt with at a meeting of shareholders, and signed by all the shareholders entitled to vote at that meeting, satisfies all the requirements of this Act relating to meetings of shareholders.
Marginal note:Filing resolution
(2) A copy of every resolution referred to in subsection (1) shall be kept with the minutes of the meetings of shareholders.
(3) Unless a ballot is demanded, an entry in the minutes of a meeting to the effect that the chairperson of the meeting declared a resolution to be carried or defeated is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, proof of the fact without proof of the number or proportion of the votes recorded in favour of or against the resolution.
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 142
- 2001, c. 14, s. 62
Marginal note:Requisition of meeting
143 (1) The holders of not less than five per cent of the issued shares of a corporation that carry the right to vote at a meeting sought to be held may requisition the directors to call a meeting of shareholders for the purposes stated in the requisition.
(2) The requisition referred to in subsection (1), which may consist of several documents of like form each signed by one or more shareholders, shall state the business to be transacted at the meeting and shall be sent to each director and to the registered office of the corporation.
Marginal note:Directors calling meeting
(3) On receiving the requisition referred to in subsection (1), the directors shall call a meeting of shareholders to transact the business stated in the requisition, unless
(a) a record date has been fixed under paragraph 134(1)(c) and notice of it has been given under subsection 134(3);
(b) the directors have called a meeting of shareholders and have given notice thereof under section 135; or
(c) the business of the meeting as stated in the requisition includes matters described in paragraphs 137(5)(b) to (e).
Marginal note:Shareholder calling meeting
(4) If the directors do not within twenty-one days after receiving the requisition referred to in subsection (1) call a meeting, any shareholder who signed the requisition may call the meeting.
(5) A meeting called under this section shall be called as nearly as possible in the manner in which meetings are to be called pursuant to the by-laws, this Part and Part XIII.
(6) Unless the shareholders otherwise resolve at a meeting called under subsection (4), the corporation shall reimburse the shareholders the expenses reasonably incurred by them in requisitioning, calling and holding the meeting.
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 143
- 2001, c. 14, s. 63
Marginal note:Meeting called by court
144 (1) A court, on the application of a director, a shareholder who is entitled to vote at a meeting of shareholders or the Director, may order a meeting of a corporation to be called, held and conducted in the manner that the court directs, if
(a) it is impracticable to call the meeting within the time or in the manner in which those meetings are to be called;
(b) it is impracticable to conduct the meeting in the manner required by this Act or the by-laws; or
(c) the court thinks that the meeting should be called, held and conducted within the time or in the manner it directs for any other reason.
Marginal note:Varying quorum
(2) Without restricting the generality of subsection (1), the court may order that the quorum required by the by-laws or this Act be varied or dispensed with at a meeting called, held and conducted pursuant to this section.
Marginal note:Valid meeting
(3) A meeting called, held and conducted pursuant to this section is for all purposes a meeting of shareholders of the corporation duly called, held and conducted.
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 144
- 2001, c. 14, s. 64
Marginal note:Court review of election
145 (1) A corporation or a shareholder or director may apply to a court to determine any controversy with respect to an election or appointment of a director or auditor of the corporation.
Marginal note:Powers of court
(2) On an application under this section, the court may make any order it thinks fit including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing,
(a) an order restraining a director or auditor whose election or appointment is challenged from acting pending determination of the dispute;
(b) an order declaring the result of the disputed election or appointment;
(c) an order requiring a new election or appointment, and including in the order directions for the management of the business and affairs of the corporation until a new election is held or appointment made; and
(d) an order determining the voting rights of shareholders and of persons claiming to own shares.
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 145
- 2001, c. 14, s. 65(F)
Marginal note:Pooling agreement
145.1 A written agreement between two or more shareholders may provide that in exercising voting rights the shares held by them shall be voted as provided in the agreement.
- 2001, c. 14, s. 66
Marginal note:Unanimous shareholder agreement
146 (1) An otherwise lawful written agreement among all the shareholders of a corporation, or among all the shareholders and one or more persons who are not shareholders, that restricts, in whole or in part, the powers of the directors to manage, or supervise the management of, the business and affairs of the corporation is valid.
Marginal note:Declaration by single shareholder
(2) If a person who is the beneficial owner of all the issued shares of a corporation makes a written declaration that restricts in whole or in part the powers of the directors to manage, or supervise the management of, the business and affairs of the corporation, the declaration is deemed to be a unanimous shareholder agreement.
Marginal note:Constructive party
(3) A purchaser or transferee of shares subject to a unanimous shareholder agreement is deemed to be a party to the agreement.
Marginal note:When no notice given
(4) If notice is not given to a purchaser or transferee of the existence of a unanimous shareholder agreement, in the manner referred to in subsection 49(8) or otherwise, the purchaser or transferee may, no later than 30 days after they become aware of the existence of the unanimous shareholder agreement, rescind the transaction by which they acquired the shares.
Marginal note:Rights of shareholder
(5) To the extent that a unanimous shareholder agreement restricts the powers of the directors to manage, or supervise the management of, the business and affairs of the corporation, parties to the unanimous shareholder agreement who are given that power to manage or supervise the management of the business and affairs of the corporation have all the rights, powers, duties and liabilities of a director of the corporation, whether they arise under this Act or otherwise, including any defences available to the directors, and the directors are relieved of their rights, powers, duties and liabilities, including their liabilities under section 119, to the same extent.
Marginal note:Discretion of shareholders
(6) Nothing in this section prevents shareholders from fettering their discretion when exercising the powers of directors under a unanimous shareholder agreement.
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 146
- 1994, c. 24, s. 15(F)
- 2001, c. 14, s. 66
147 In this Part,
- form of proxy
form of proxy means a written or printed form that, on completion and execution or, in Quebec, on signing by or on behalf of a shareholder, becomes a proxy; (formulaire de procuration)
intermediary means a person who holds a security on behalf of another person who is not the registered holder of the security, and includes
(a) a securities broker or dealer required to be registered to trade or deal in securities under the laws of any jurisdiction;
(b) a securities depositary;
(c) a financial institution;
(d) in respect of a clearing agency, a securities dealer, trust company, bank or other person, including another clearing agency, on whose behalf the clearing agency or its nominees hold securities of an issuer;
(e) a trustee or administrator of a self-administered retirement savings plan, retirement income fund, education savings plan or other similar self-administered savings or investment plan registered under the Income Tax Act;
(f) a nominee of a person referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (e); and
(g) a person who carries out functions similar to those carried out by individuals or entities referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (e) and that holds a security registered in its name, or in the name of its nominee, on behalf of another person who is not the registered holder of the security. (intermédiaire)
proxy means a completed and executed or, in Quebec, signed form of proxy by means of which a shareholder appoints a proxyholder to attend and act on the shareholder’s behalf at a meeting of shareholders; (procuration)
registrant[Repealed, 2001, c. 14, s. 67]
solicit or solicitation
(i) a request for a proxy whether or not accompanied by or included in a form of proxy,
(ii) a request to execute or not to execute or, in Quebec, to sign or not to sign a form of proxy or to revoke a proxy,
(iii) the sending of a form of proxy or other communication to a shareholder under circumstances reasonably calculated to result in the procurement, withholding or revocation of a proxy, and
(iv) the sending of a form of proxy to a shareholder under section 149; but
(b) does not include
(i) the sending of a form of proxy in response to an unsolicited request made by or on behalf of a shareholder,
(ii) the performance of administrative acts or professional services on behalf of a person soliciting a proxy,
(iii) the sending by an intermediary of the documents referred to in section 153,
(iv) a solicitation by a person in respect of shares of which the person is the beneficial owner,
(v) a public announcement, as prescribed, by a shareholder of how the shareholder intends to vote and the reasons for that decision,
(vi) a communication for the purposes of obtaining the number of shares required for a shareholder proposal under subsection 137(1.1), or
(vii) a communication, other than a solicitation by or on behalf of the management of the corporation, that is made to shareholders, in any circumstances that may be prescribed; (sollicitation)
- solicitation by or on behalf of the management of a corporation
solicitation by or on behalf of the management of a corporation means a solicitation by any person pursuant to a resolution or instructions of, or with the acquiescence of, the directors or a committee of the directors. (sollicitation effectuée par la direction ou pour son compte)
- R.S., 1985, c. C-44, s. 147
- 2001, c. 14, ss. 67, 135(E)
- 2011, c. 21, s. 54(E)
- Date modified: