Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. B-3)
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Act current to 2023-05-17 and last amended on 2023-04-27. Previous Versions
PART IVProperty of the Bankrupt (continued)
General Provisions (continued)
Marginal note:Effect of sales by trustee
84 All sales of property made by a trustee vest in the purchaser all the legal and equitable estate of the bankrupt therein.
- R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 84
- 2004, c. 25, s. 51(F)
Marginal note:Assignment of agreements
84.1 (1) On application by a trustee and on notice to every party to an agreement, a court may make an order assigning the rights and obligations of a bankrupt under the agreement to any person who is specified by the court and agrees to the assignment.
(2) In the case of an individual,
(a) they may not make an application under subsection (1) unless they are carrying on a business; and
(b) only rights and obligations in relation to the business may be assigned.
(3) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of rights and obligations that are not assignable by reason of their nature or that arise under
(a) an agreement entered into on or after the date of the bankruptcy;
(b) an eligible financial contract; or
(c) a collective agreement.
Marginal note:Factors to be considered
(4) In deciding whether to make the order, the court is to consider, among other things,
(a) whether the person to whom the rights and obligations are to be assigned is able to perform the obligations; and
(b) whether it is appropriate to assign the rights and obligations to that person.
(5) The court may not make the order unless it is satisfied that all monetary defaults in relation to the agreement — other than those arising by reason only of the person’s bankruptcy, insolvency or failure to perform a non-monetary obligation — will be remedied on or before the day fixed by the court.
Marginal note:Copy of order
(6) The applicant is to send a copy of the order to every party to the agreement.
- 2005, c. 47, s. 68
- 2007, c. 29, s. 97
- 2009, c. 31, s. 64
Marginal note:Certain rights limited
84.2 (1) No person may terminate or amend — or claim an accelerated payment or forfeiture of the term under — any agreement, including a security agreement, with a bankrupt individual by reason only of the individual’s bankruptcy or insolvency.
(2) If the agreement referred to in subsection (1) is a lease, the lessor may not terminate or amend, or claim an accelerated payment or forfeiture of the term under, the lease by reason only of the bankruptcy or insolvency or of the fact that the bankrupt has not paid rent in respect of any period before the time of the bankruptcy.
Marginal note:Public utilities
(3) No public utility may discontinue service to a bankrupt individual by reason only of the individual’s bankruptcy or insolvency or of the fact that the bankrupt individual has not paid for services rendered or material provided before the time of the bankruptcy.
Marginal note:Certain acts not prevented
(4) Nothing in this section is to be construed as
(a) prohibiting a person from requiring payments to be made in cash for goods, services, use of leased property or other valuable consideration provided after the time of the bankruptcy; or
(b) requiring the further advance of money or credit.
Marginal note:Provisions of section override agreement
(5) Any provision in an agreement that has the effect of providing for, or permitting, anything that, in substance, is contrary to this section is of no force or effect.
Marginal note:Powers of court
(6) On application by a party to an agreement or by a public utility, the court may declare that this section does not apply — or applies only to the extent declared by the court — if the applicant satisfies the court that the operation of this section would likely cause the applicant significant financial hardship.
Marginal note:Eligible financial contracts
(7) Subsection (1) does not apply
(a) in respect of an eligible financial contract; or
(b) to prevent a member of the Canadian Payments Association from ceasing to act as a clearing agent or group clearer for an insolvent person in accordance with the Canadian Payments Act and the by-laws and rules of that Association.
Marginal note:Permitted actions
(8) Despite section 69.3, the following actions are permitted in respect of an eligible financial contract that is entered into before the time of the bankruptcy, and is terminated on or after that time, but only in accordance with the provisions of that contract:
(a) the netting or setting off or compensation of obligations between the individual bankrupt and the other parties to the eligible financial contract; and
(b) any dealing with financial collateral including
(i) the sale or foreclosure or, in the Province of Quebec, the surrender of financial collateral, and
(ii) the setting off or compensation of financial collateral or the application of the proceeds or value of financial collateral.
Marginal note:Net termination values
(9) If net termination values determined in accordance with an eligible financial contract referred to in subsection (8) are owed by the individual bankrupt to another party to the eligible financial contract, that other party is deemed, for the purposes of paragraphs 69(1)(a) and 69.1(1)(a), to be a creditor of the individual bankrupt with a claim provable in bankruptcy in respect of those net termination values.
- 2005, c. 47, s. 68
- 2007, c. 29, s. 98
- 2009, c. 31, s. 64
Marginal note:Application to limited partnerships
85 (1) This Act applies to limited partnerships in like manner as if limited partnerships were ordinary partnerships, and, on all the general partners of a limited partnership becoming bankrupt, the property of the limited partnership vests in the trustee.
Marginal note:Actions by trustee and bankrupt’s partner
(2) If a member of a partnership becomes bankrupt, the court may authorize the trustee to commence and prosecute any action in the names of the trustee and of the bankrupt’s partner, and any release by the partner of the debt or demand to which the action relates is void or, in the Province of Quebec, null.
Marginal note:Notice to partner
(3) Notice of the application for authority to commence an action under subsection (2) shall be given to the bankrupt’s partner, who may show cause against it, and on his application the court may, if it thinks fit, direct that he shall receive his proper share of the proceeds of the action, and, if he does not claim any benefit therefrom, he shall be indemnified against costs in respect thereof as the court directs.
- R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 85
- 2004, c. 25, s. 52
Marginal note:Status of Crown claims
86 (1) In relation to a bankruptcy or proposal, all provable claims, including secured claims, of Her Majesty in right of Canada or a province or of any body under an Act respecting workers’ compensation, in this section and in section 87 called a “workers’ compensation body”, rank as unsecured claims.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply
(a) to claims that are secured by a security or charge of a kind that can be obtained by persons other than Her Majesty or a workers’ compensation body
(i) pursuant to any law, or
(ii) pursuant to provisions of federal or provincial legislation, where those provisions do not have as their sole or principal purpose the establishment of a means of securing claims of Her Majesty or of a workers’ compensation body; and
(b) to the extent provided in subsection 87(2), to claims that are secured by a security referred to in subsection 87(1), if the security is registered in accordance with that subsection.
(3) Subsection (1) does not affect the operation of
(a) subsections 224(1.2) and (1.3) of the Income Tax Act;
(b) any provision of the Canada Pension Plan or of the Employment Insurance Act that refers to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act and provides for the collection of a contribution, as defined in the Canada Pension Plan, an employee’s premium, or employer’s premium, as defined in the Employment Insurance Act, or a premium under Part VII.1 of that Act, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts; or
(c) any provision of provincial legislation that has a similar purpose to subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act, or that refers to that subsection, to the extent that it provides for the collection of a sum, and of any related interest, penalties or other amounts, where the sum
(i) has been withheld or deducted by a person from a payment to another person and is in respect of a tax similar in nature to the income tax imposed on individuals under the Income Tax Act, or
(ii) is of the same nature as a contribution under the Canada Pension Plan if the province is a province providing a comprehensive pension plan as defined in subsection 3(1) of the Canada Pension Plan and the provincial legislation establishes a provincial pension plan as defined in that subsection,
and for the purpose of paragraph (c), the provision of provincial legislation is, despite any Act of Canada or of a province or any other law, deemed to have the same effect and scope against any creditor, however secured, as subsection 224(1.2) of the Income Tax Act in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(i), or as subsection 23(2) of the Canada Pension Plan in respect of a sum referred to in subparagraph (c)(ii), and in respect of any related interest, penalties or other amounts.
- R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 86
- 1992, c. 27, s. 39
- 1997, c. 12, s. 73
- 2000, c. 30, s. 148
- 2005, c. 47, s. 69
- 2009, c. 33, s. 25
Marginal note:Statutory Crown securities
87 (1) A security provided for in federal or provincial legislation for the sole or principal purpose of securing a claim of Her Majesty in right of Canada or of a province or of a workers’ compensation body is valid in relation to a bankruptcy or proposal only if the security is registered under a prescribed system of registration before the date of the initial bankruptcy event.
(2) In relation to a bankruptcy or proposal, a security referred to in subsection (1) that is registered in accordance with that subsection
(a) is subordinate to securities in respect of which all steps necessary to make them effective against other creditors were taken before that registration; and
(b) is valid only in respect of amounts owing to Her Majesty or a workers’ compensation body at the time of that registration, plus any interest subsequently accruing on those amounts.
- R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 87
- 1992, c. 27, s. 39
- 1997, c. 12, s. 74
- 2004, c. 25, s. 53
- 2005, c. 47, s. 70
Priority of Financial Collateral
88 In relation to a bankruptcy or proposal, no order may be made under this Act if the order would have the effect of subordinating financial collateral.
- R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 88
- 1992, c. 27, s. 39
- 1994, c. 26, s. 6
- 2007, c. 29, s. 99, c. 36, s. 112
- 2009, c. 31, s. 65
89 and 90 [Repealed, 1992, c. 27, s. 39]
Preferences and Transfers at Undervalue
91 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 71]
92 and 93 [Repealed, 2000, c. 12, s. 12]
94 [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 72]
95 (1) A transfer of property made, a provision of services made, a charge on property made, a payment made, an obligation incurred or a judicial proceeding taken or suffered by an insolvent person
(a) in favour of a creditor who is dealing at arm’s length with the insolvent person, or a person in trust for that creditor, with a view to giving that creditor a preference over another creditor is void as against — or, in Quebec, may not be set up against — the trustee if it is made, incurred, taken or suffered, as the case may be, during the period beginning on the day that is three months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy; and
(b) in favour of a creditor who is not dealing at arm’s length with the insolvent person, or a person in trust for that creditor, that has the effect of giving that creditor a preference over another creditor is void as against — or, in Quebec, may not be set up against — the trustee if it is made, incurred, taken or suffered, as the case may be, during the period beginning on the day that is 12 months before the date of the initial bankruptcy event and ending on the date of the bankruptcy.
Marginal note:Preference presumed
(2) If the transfer, charge, payment, obligation or judicial proceeding referred to in paragraph (1)(a) has the effect of giving the creditor a preference, it is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, presumed to have been made, incurred, taken or suffered with a view to giving the creditor the preference — even if it was made, incurred, taken or suffered, as the case may be, under pressure — and evidence of pressure is not admissible to support the transaction.
(2.1) Subsection (2) does not apply, and the parties are deemed to be dealing with each other at arm’s length, in respect of the following:
(a) a margin deposit made by a clearing member with a clearing house; or
(b) a transfer, charge or payment made in connection with financial collateral and in accordance with the provisions of an eligible financial contract.
(3) In this section,
- clearing house
clearing house means a body that acts as an intermediary for its clearing members in effecting securities transactions; (chambre de compensation)
- clearing member
clearing member means a person engaged in the business of effecting securities transactions who uses a clearing house as intermediary; (membre)
creditor includes a surety or guarantor for the debt due to the creditor; (créancier)
- margin deposit
margin deposit means a payment, deposit or transfer to a clearing house under the rules of the clearing house to assure the performance of the obligations of a clearing member in connection with security transactions, including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, transactions respecting futures, options or other derivatives or to fulfil any of those obligations. (dépôt de couverture)
- R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 95
- 1997, c. 12, s. 78
- 2004, c. 25, s. 56
- 2007, c. 29, s. 100, c. 36, ss. 42, 112
- Date modified: