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Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. B-3)

Act current to 2024-05-28 and last amended on 2023-04-27. Previous Versions

PART VAdministration of Estates (continued)

Inspectors (continued)

Marginal note:Meetings

  •  (1) The trustee may call a meeting of inspectors when he deems it advisable and he shall do so when requested in writing by a majority of the inspectors.

  • Marginal note:Participation by telephone, etc.

    (1.1) An inspector may, if all the other inspectors consent, participate in a meeting of inspectors by means of such telephone or other communication facilities as permit all persons participating in the meeting to communicate with each other, and an inspector participating in such a meeting by such means is deemed for the purpose of this Act to be present at that meeting.

  • Marginal note:Trustee votes in case of tie

    (2) In the event of an equal division of opinion at a meeting of inspectors, the opinion of any absent inspector shall be sought in order to resolve the difference, and in the case of a difference that cannot be so resolved, it shall be resolved by the trustee, unless it concerns his personal conduct or interest in which case it shall be resolved by the creditors or the court.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 117
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 48

Marginal note:Obligation of trustee when inspectors fail to exercise their powers

 If the inspectors fail to exercise the powers conferred on them, the trustee shall call a meeting of the creditors for the purpose of substituting other inspectors and for the purpose of taking any action or giving any directions that may be necessary.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 118
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 84

Marginal note:Creditors may override directions of inspectors

  •  (1) Subject to this Act, the trustee shall in the administration of the property of the bankrupt and in the distribution thereof among his creditors have regard to any directions that may be given by resolution of the creditors at any general meeting or by the inspectors, and any directions so given by the creditors shall in case of conflict be deemed to override any directions given by the inspectors.

  • Marginal note:Decisions of inspectors subject to review by court

    (2) The decisions and actions of the inspectors are subject to review by the court at the instance of the trustee or any interested person and the court may revoke or vary any act or decision of the inspectors and it may give such directions, permission or authority as it deems proper in substitution thereof or may refer any matter back to the inspectors for reconsideration.

  • R.S., c. B-3, s. 94

Marginal note:Inspector may not acquire property

  •  (1) No inspector is, directly or indirectly, capable of purchasing or acquiring for himself or for another any of the property of the estate for which he is an inspector, except with the prior approval of the court.

  • Marginal note:Formal defects

    (2) No defect or irregularity in the appointment of an inspector vitiates any act done by him in good faith.

  • Marginal note:Duty of inspectors

    (3) In addition to the other duties that are attributed to them under this Act, the inspectors shall from time to time verify the bank balance of the estate, examine the trustee’s accounts and inquire into the adequacy of the security filed by the trustee and, subject to subsection (4), shall approve the trustee’s final statement of receipts and disbursements, dividend sheet and disposition of unrealized property.

  • Marginal note:Approval of trustee’s final statement by inspectors

    (4) Before approving the final statement of receipts and disbursements of the trustee, the inspectors shall satisfy themselves that all the property has been accounted for and that the administration of the estate has been completed as far as can reasonably be done and shall determine whether or not the disbursements and expenses incurred are proper and have been duly authorized, and the fees and remuneration just and reasonable in the circumstances.

  • Marginal note:inspector’s expenses and fees

    (5) Each inspector

    • (a) may be repaid actual and necessary travel expenses incurred in relation to the performance of the inspector’s duties; and

    • (b) may be paid such fees per meeting as are prescribed.

  • Marginal note:Special services

    (6) An inspector duly authorized by the creditors or by the other inspectors to perform special services for the estate may be allowed a special fee for those services, subject to approval of the court, which may vary that fee as it deems proper having regard to the nature of the services rendered in relation to the obligations of the inspector to the estate to act in good faith for the general interests of the administration of the estate.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 120
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 49
  • 2001, c. 4, s. 30
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 65(F)
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 85

Claims Provable

Marginal note:Claims provable

  •  (1) All debts and liabilities, present or future, to which the bankrupt is subject on the day on which the bankrupt becomes bankrupt or to which the bankrupt may become subject before the bankrupt’s discharge by reason of any obligation incurred before the day on which the bankrupt becomes bankrupt shall be deemed to be claims provable in proceedings under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Contingent and unliquidated claims

    (2) The determination whether a contingent or unliquidated claim is a provable claim and the valuation of such a claim shall be made in accordance with section 135.

  • Marginal note:Debts payable at a future time

    (3) A creditor may prove a debt not payable at the date of the bankruptcy and may receive dividends equally with the other creditors, deducting only thereout a rebate of interest at the rate of five per cent per annum computed from the declaration of a dividend to the time when the debt would have become payable according to the terms on which it was contracted.

  • Marginal note:Family support claims

    (4) A claim in respect of a debt or liability referred to in paragraph 178(1)(b) or (c) payable under an order or agreement made before the date of the initial bankruptcy event in respect of the bankrupt and at a time when the spouse, former spouse, former common-law partner or child was living apart from the bankrupt, whether the order or agreement provides for periodic amounts or lump sum amounts, is a claim provable under this Act.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 121
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 50
  • 1997, c. 12, s. 87
  • 2000, c. 12, s. 14

Marginal note:Claims provable in bankruptcy following proposal

  •  (1) The claims of creditors under a proposal are, in the event of the debtor subsequently becoming bankrupt, provable in the bankruptcy for the full amount of the claims less any dividends paid thereon pursuant to the proposal.

  • Marginal note:Interest

    (2) If interest on any debt or sum certain is provable under this Act but the rate of interest has not been agreed on, the creditor may prove interest at a rate not exceeding five per cent per annum to the date of the bankruptcy from the time the debt or sum was payable, if evidenced by a written document, or, if not so evidenced, from the time notice has been given the debtor of the interest claimed.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 122
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 66(E)

Marginal note:Proof in respect of distinct contracts

 Where a bankrupt was, at the date of the bankruptcy, liable in respect of distinct contracts as a member of two or more distinct firms, or as a sole contractor and also as member of a firm, the circumstance that the firms are in whole or in part composed of the same individuals, or that the sole contractor is also one of the joint contractors, shall not prevent proof, in respect of the contracts, against the properties respectively liable on the contracts.

  • R.S., c. B-3, s. 96

Proof of Claims

Marginal note:Creditors shall prove claims

  •  (1) Every creditor shall prove his claim, and a creditor who does not prove his claim is not entitled to share in any distribution that may be made.

  • Marginal note:Proof by delivery

    (2) A claim shall be proved by delivering to the trustee a proof of claim in the prescribed form.

  • Marginal note:Who may make proof of claims

    (3) The proof of claim may be made by the creditor himself or by a person authorized by him on behalf of the creditor, and, if made by a person so authorized, it shall state his authority and means of knowledge.

  • Marginal note:Shall refer to account

    (4) The proof of claim shall contain or refer to a statement of account showing the particulars of the claim and any counter-claim that the bankrupt may have to the knowledge of the creditor and shall specify the vouchers or other evidence, if any, by which it can be substantiated.

  • (5) [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 86]

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 124
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 86

Marginal note:Penalty for filing false claim

 Where a creditor or other person in any proceedings under this Act files with the trustee a proof of claim containing any wilfully false statement or wilful misrepresentation, the court may, in addition to any other penalty provided in this Act, disallow the claim in whole or in part as the court in its discretion may see fit.

  • R.S., c. B-3, s. 97

Marginal note:Who may examine proofs

  •  (1) Every creditor who has filed a proof of claim is entitled to see and examine the proofs of other creditors.

  • Marginal note:Worker’s wage claims

    (2) Proofs of claims for wages of workers and others employed by the bankrupt may be made in one proof by the bankrupt, by someone on the bankrupt’s behalf, by a representative of a federal or provincial ministry responsible for labour matters, by a representative of a union representing workers and others employed by the bankrupt or by a court-appointed representative, and that proof is to be made by attaching to it a schedule setting out the names and addresses of the workers and others and the amounts severally due to them, but that proof does not disentitle any worker or other wage earner to file a separate proof on his or her own behalf.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 126
  • 1997, c. 12, s. 88
  • 2005, c. 47, s. 87

Proof by Secured Creditors

Marginal note:Proof by secured creditor

  •  (1) Where a secured creditor realizes his security, he may prove the balance due to him after deducting the net amount realized.

  • Marginal note:May prove whole claim on surrender

    (2) Where a secured creditor surrenders his security to the trustee for the general benefit of the creditors, he may prove his whole claim.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 127
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 67(F)

Marginal note:Proof may be requested

  •  (1) Where the trustee has knowledge of property that may be subject to a security, the trustee may, by serving notice in the prescribed form and manner, require any person to file, in the prescribed form and manner, a proof of the security that gives full particulars of the security, including the date on which the security was given and the value at which that person assesses it.

  • Marginal note:Where reply not received

    (1.1) Where the trustee serves a notice pursuant to subsection (1), and the person on whom the notice is served does not file a proof of security within thirty days after the day of service of the notice, the trustee may thereupon, with leave of the court, sell or dispose of any property that was subject to the security, free of that security.

  • Marginal note:Dividend on balance

    (2) A creditor is entitled to receive a dividend in respect only of the balance due to him after deducting the assessed value of his security.

  • Marginal note:Trustee may redeem security

    (3) The trustee may redeem a security on payment to the secured creditor of the debt or the value of the security as assessed, in the proof of security, by the secured creditor.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 128
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 51
  • 1999, c. 31, s. 25
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 68(F)

Marginal note:May order security to be sold

  •  (1) Where the trustee is dissatisfied with the value at which a security is assessed, the trustee may require that the property the security comprises be offered for sale at such time and on such terms and conditions as may be agreed on between the creditor and the trustee or, in default of such an agreement, as the court may direct.

  • Marginal note:Sale by public auction

    (2) Where a sale under subsection (1) is by public auction the creditor or the trustee on behalf of the estate may bid or purchase.

  • (3) [Repealed, 1992, c. 27, s. 52]

  • Marginal note:Costs of sale

    (4) The costs and expenses of a sale made under this section are in the discretion of the court.

  • R.S., 1985, c. B-3, s. 129
  • 1992, c. 27, s. 52
  • 2004, c. 25, s. 69(F)

Marginal note:Creditor may require trustee to elect to exercise power

 Notwithstanding subsection 128(3) and section 129, the creditor may, by notice in writing, require the trustee to elect whether he will exercise the power of redeeming the security or requiring it to be realized, and if the trustee does not, within one month after receiving the notice or such further time or times as the court may allow, signify in writing to the creditor his election to exercise the power, he is not entitled to exercise it, and the equity of redemption or any other interest in the property comprised in the security that is vested in the trustee shall vest in the creditor, and the amount of his claim shall be reduced by the amount at which the security has been valued.

  • R.S., c. B-3, s. 101

Marginal note:Amended valuation by creditor

 Where a creditor after having valued his security subsequently realizes it, or it is realized under section 129, the net amount realized shall be substituted for the amount of any valuation previously made by the creditor and shall be treated in all respects as an amended valuation made by the creditor.

  • R.S., c. B-3, s. 102

Marginal note:Secured creditor may amend

  •  (1) Where the trustee has not elected to acquire the security as provided in this Act, a creditor may at any time amend the valuation and proof on showing to the satisfaction of the trustee or the court that the valuation and proof were made in good faith on a mistaken estimate or that the security has diminished or increased in value since its previous valuation.

  • Marginal note:Amendment at cost of creditor

    (2) An amendment pursuant to subsection (1) shall be made at the cost of the creditor and on such terms as the court orders, unless the trustee allows the amendment without application to the court.

  • Marginal note:Rights and liabilities of creditor where valuation amended

    (3) Where a valuation has been amended pursuant to this section, the creditor

    • (a) shall forthwith repay any surplus dividend that he may have received in excess of that to which he would have been entitled on the amended valuation; or

    • (b) is entitled to be paid out of any money for the time being available for dividend any dividend or share of dividend that he may have failed to receive by reason of the amount of the original valuation before that money is made applicable to the payment of any future dividend, but he is not entitled to disturb the distribution of any dividend declared before the amendment is filed with the trustee.

  • R.S., c. B-3, s. 103

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