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Territorial Lands Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. T-7)

Full Document:  

Act current to 2022-06-20 and last amended on 2019-07-15. Previous Versions

Administrative Monetary Penalties (continued)

Violations (continued)

Marginal note:Liability of directors, officers, etc.

 If a corporation commits a violation, any director, officer or agent of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, acquiesced in or participated in the commission of the violation is a party to the violation and is liable to a penalty in the amount that is determined in accordance with the regulations, whether or not the corporation has been proceeded against in accordance with this Act.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Proof of violation

 In any proceedings under this Act against a person in relation to a violation, it is sufficient proof of the violation to establish that it was committed by an employee or agent of the person, whether or not the employee or agent is identified or proceeded against in accordance with this Act.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Issuance and service of notice of violation

  •  (1) If an enforcement officer believes on reasonable grounds that a person has committed a violation, the enforcement officer may issue a notice of violation and cause it to be served on the person.

  • Marginal note:Contents

    (2) The notice of violation must

    • (a) name the person that is believed to have committed the violation;

    • (b) set out the relevant facts surrounding the violation;

    • (c) set out the amount of the penalty;

    • (d) inform the person of their right to request a review with respect to the violation or the amount of the penalty, and of the period within which that right must be exercised;

    • (e) inform the person of the time and manner of paying the penalty; and

    • (f) inform the person that, if they do not pay the penalty or exercise their right referred to in paragraph (d), they are considered to have committed the violation and are liable to the penalty.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Rules About Violations

Marginal note:Certain defences not available

  •  (1) A person named in a notice of violation does not have a defence by reason that the person

    • (a) exercised due diligence to prevent the commission of the violation; or

    • (b) reasonably and honestly believed in the existence of facts that, if true, would exonerate the person.

  • Marginal note:Common law principles

    (2) Every rule and principle of the common law that renders any circumstance a justification or excuse in relation to a charge for an offence under this Act applies in respect of a violation to the extent that it is not inconsistent with this Act.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Continuing violation

 A violation that is committed or continued on more than one day constitutes a separate violation for each day on which it is committed or continued.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Violation or offence

  •  (1) Proceeding with any act or omission as a violation under this Act precludes proceeding with it as an offence under this Act, and proceeding with it as an offence under this Act precludes proceeding with it as a violation under this Act.

  • Marginal note:Violations not offences

    (2) For greater certainty, a violation is not an offence and, accordingly, section 126 of the Criminal Code does not apply in respect of a violation.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Limitation period

 No notice of violation is to be issued more than two years after the day on which the Minister becomes aware of the acts or omissions that constitute the alleged violation.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Reviews

Marginal note:Right to request review

 A person who is served with a notice of violation may — within 30 days after the day on which it is served or within any longer period that is prescribed by the regulations — make a request to the Minister for a review of the amount of the penalty or the facts of the violation, or both.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Correction or cancellation of notice of violation

 At any time before a request for a review in respect of a notice of violation is received by the Minister, an enforcement officer may cancel the notice of violation or correct an error in it.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Review

 On receipt of a request for a review in respect of a notice of violation, the Minister shall conduct the review.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Object of review

  •  (1) The Minister shall determine, as the case may be, whether the amount of the penalty was determined in accordance with the regulations or whether the person committed the violation, or both.

  • Marginal note:Determination

    (2) The Minister shall render a determination in writing and cause the person who requested the review to be served with a copy of the determination and the reasons for it.

  • Marginal note:Correction of penalty

    (3) If the Minister determines that the amount of the penalty was not determined in accordance with the regulations, the Minister shall correct it.

  • Marginal note:Responsibility

    (4) If the Minister determines that the person who requested the review committed the violation, that person is liable to the penalty as set out in the determination.

  • Marginal note:Determination final

    (5) A determination made under this section is final and binding and, except for judicial review under the Federal Courts Act, is not subject to appeal or to review by any court.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Burden of proof

 If the facts of a violation are reviewed, the enforcement officer who issued the notice of violation shall establish, on a balance of probabilities, that the person named in it committed the violation identified in it.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Responsibility

Marginal note:Payment

 If a person pays the penalty set out in a notice of violation, the person is considered to have committed the violation and proceedings in respect of it are ended.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Failure to act

 A person that neither pays the penalty within the period set out in the notice of violation — nor requests a review within the period referred to in section 46 — is considered to have committed the violation and is liable to the penalty.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Recovery of Penalties

Marginal note:Debts to Her Majesty

  •  (1) A penalty constitutes a debt due to Her Majesty in right of Canada and may be recovered in any court of competent jurisdiction.

  • Marginal note:Limitation period

    (2) No proceedings to recover the debt are to be instituted more than five years after the day on which the debt becomes payable.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

Marginal note:Certificate

  •  (1) The Minister may issue a certificate of non-payment certifying the unpaid amount of any debt referred to in subsection 53(1).

  • Marginal note:Registration

    (2) Registration in any court of competent jurisdiction of a certificate of non-payment has the same effect as a judgment of that court for a debt of the amount specified in the certificate and all related registration costs.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77

General

Marginal note:Authenticity of documents

 In the absence of evidence to the contrary, a document that appears to be a notice issued under subsection 41(1) is presumed to be authentic and is proof of its contents in any proceeding in respect of a violation.

  • 2014, c. 2, s. 77
 
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