Review by Tribunal
Marginal note:Review by Tribunal
(a) confirm, vary or set aside any decision of the Minister under section 12 or 13, or
(b) determine whether or not the person requesting the review committed a violation and, where the Tribunal decides that the person committed a violation but considers that the amount of the penalty for the violation, if any, was not established in accordance with the regulations, the Tribunal shall correct the amount of the penalty,
and the Tribunal shall cause a notice of any order made under this subsection to be served on the person who requested the review, and on the Minister.
(2) Where the Tribunal decides under subsection (1) that a person has committed a violation, the person is liable for the amount of the penalty as set out in the order of the Tribunal and, on the payment of that amount in the time and manner specified in the order,
Marginal note:Debts to Her Majesty
(a) the amount of a penalty, from the time the notice of violation setting out the penalty is served;
(b) every amount undertaken to be paid pursuant to a compliance agreement entered into with the Minister under subsection 10(1), from the time the compliance agreement is entered into;
(c) the amount set out in a notice of default referred to in subsection 10(4), from the time the notice is served;
(d) the amount of a penalty as set out in a decision of the Minister under subsection 13(1), from the time the notice under that subsection is served;
(e) the amount of a penalty as set out in an order of the Tribunal under subsection 14(1), from the expiration of the time specified in the order for the payment of that amount; and
(f) the amount of any reasonable expenses incurred pursuant to section 22, from the date they are incurred.
Marginal note:Time limit
(2) No proceedings to recover a debt referred to in subsection (1) may be commenced later than five years after the debt became payable.
Marginal note:Debt final
(3) A debt referred to in subsection (1) is final and not subject to review or to be restrained, prohibited, removed, set aside or otherwise dealt with except to the extent and in the manner provided by sections 9 to 14.
Marginal note:Certificate of default
(2) On production to the Federal Court, a certificate made under subsection (1) shall be registered in that Court and, when registered, has the same force and effect, and all proceedings may be taken on the certificate, as if it were a judgment obtained in that Court for a debt of the amount specified in the certificate and all reasonable costs and charges attendant in the registration of the certificate.
Rules of Law About Violations
Marginal note:Violations not offences
Marginal note:Certain defences not available
Marginal note:Common law principles
(2) Every rule and principle of the common law that renders any circumstance a justification or excuse in relation to a charge for an offence under an agri-food Act applies in respect of a violation to the extent that it is not inconsistent with this Act.
Marginal note:Burden of proof
19 In every case where the facts of a violation are reviewed by the Minister or by the Tribunal, the Minister must establish, on a balance of probabilities, that the person named in the notice of violation committed the violation identified in the notice.
Marginal note:Vicarious liability — licence holders, etc.
20 (1) The holder of a licence, certificate, letter of accreditation, permit, notice or other document issued under an agri-food Act is liable for a violation that is committed in respect of any matter relating to any activity or requirement under that document, whether or not the person who actually committed the violation is identified or proceeded against in accordance with this Act.
Marginal note:Vicarious liability — acts of employees and agents
(2) A person is liable for a violation that is committed by any employee or agent of the person acting in the course of the employee’s employment or the scope of the agent’s authority, whether or not the employee or agent who actually committed the violation is identified or proceeded against in accordance with this Act.
Marginal note:Continuing violation
21 A violation that is continued on more than one day constitutes a separate violation in respect of each day during which it is continued.
(a) a person is deemed by this Act to have committed a violation, or
(b) the Minister, pursuant to a review under this Act, has decided that a person has committed a violation and no request to review the Minister’s decision has been made to the Tribunal in the prescribed time and manner,
anything seized and detained under an agri-food Act in relation to the violation is, at the election of Her Majesty in right of Canada, immediately forfeited to Her Majesty in right of Canada and may be disposed of, at the expense of the person from whom it was seized, in accordance with the regulations made under the applicable agri-food Act unless the Minister directs otherwise.
Marginal note:Notations removed
23 (1) Any notation of a violation shall, on application by the person who committed the violation, be removed from any records that may be kept by the Minister respecting that person after the expiration of five years from
(a) where the notice of violation contained a warning, the date the notice was served, or
(b) in any other case, the payment of any debt referred to in subsection 15(1),
unless the removal from the record would not in the opinion of the Minister be in the public interest or another notation of a violation has been recorded by the Minister in respect of that person after that date and has not been removed in accordance with this subsection.
Marginal note:Duty to notify
(2) The Minister shall cause a notice of removal to be served on the person in respect of whom a notation is removed pursuant to subsection (1).
Marginal note:Service of documents
24 Every document required or authorized to be served under this Act shall be served in accordance with the regulations, either personally or in such other manner as may be authorized in the regulations.
25 In any proceeding for a violation or for a prosecution for an offence, a notice of violation purporting to be issued pursuant to this Act is admissible in evidence without proof of the signature or official character of the person appearing to have signed the notice of violation.
Marginal note:Limitation period
26 No proceedings in respect of a violation may be commenced later than
(a) six months after the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arises, in the case of a minor violation; or
(b) two years after the day on which the subject matter of the proceedings arises, in the case of a serious violation or a very serious violation.
- 1995, c. 40, s. 26
- 2015, c. 2, s. 119
Marginal note:Review Tribunal continued
(2) The Tribunal consists of members to be appointed by the Governor in Council, one of whom is to be appointed as Chairperson.
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