Radiation Protection Regulations
P.C. 2000-783 2000-05-31
Her Excellency the Governor General in Council, on the recommendation of the Minister of Natural Resources, pursuant to section 44 of the Nuclear Safety and Control ActFootnote a, hereby approves the annexed Radiation Protection Regulations made by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission on May 31, 2000.
Return to footnote aS.C. 1997, c. 9
Interpretation and Application
1 (1) The definitions in this subsection apply in these Regulations.
- absorbed dose
absorbed dose means the quotient, in gray, obtained by dividing the energy absorbed through exposure to radiation by the mass of the body or part of the body that absorbs the radiation. (dose absorbée)
Act means the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. (Loi)
- balance of the pregnancy
balance of the pregnancy means the period from the moment a licensee is informed, in writing, of the pregnancy to the end of the pregnancy. (reste de la grossesse)
caregiver means a person who willingly and voluntarily — and not as an occupation — helps in the support and comfort of a person who has been administered a nuclear substance for therapeutic purposes as directed by a medical practitioner who is qualified to give such direction under the applicable provincial legislation. (personne soignante)
committed means, in respect of a dose of radiation, received by an organ or tissue from a nuclear substance during the 50 years after the substance is taken into the body of a person 18 years old or older or during the period beginning at intake and ending at age 70, after it is taken into the body of a person less than 18 years old. (engagée)
dosimeter means a device for measuring a dose of radiation that is worn or carried by an individual. (dosimètre)
- effective dose
effective dose means the sum of the products, in sievert, obtained by multiplying the equivalent dose of radiation received by and committed to each organ or tissue set out in column 1 of an item of Schedule 1 by the weighting factor set out in column 2 of that item. (dose efficace)
- equivalent dose
equivalent dose means the product, in sievert, obtained by multiplying the absorbed dose of radiation of the type set out in column 1 of an item of Schedule 2 by the weighting factor set out in column 2 of that item. (dose équivalente)
- exemption quantity
exemption quantity has the same meaning as in section 1 of the Nuclear Substances and Radiation Devices Regulations. (quantité d’exemption)
- five-year dosimetry period
five-year dosimetry period means the period of five calendar years beginning on January 1 of the year following the year in which these Regulations come into force, and every period of five calendar years after that period. (période de dosimétrie de cinq ans)
- licensed activity
licensed activity means an activity described in any of paragraphs 26(a) to (f) of the Act that a licence authorizes the licensee to carry on. (activité autorisée)
licensee means a person who is licensed to carry on an activity described in any of paragraphs 26(a) to (f) of the Act. (titulaire de permis)
- one-year dosimetry period
one-year dosimetry period means the period of one calendar year beginning on January 1 of the year following the year in which these Regulations come into force, and every period of one calendar year after that period. (période de dosimétrie d’un an)
- radon progeny
radon progeny means the following radioactive decay products of radon 222: bismuth 214, lead 214, polonium 214 and polonium 218. (produit de filiation du radon)
skin means the layer of cells within the skin that are 7 mg/cm2 below the surface. (peau)
worker means a person who performs work that is referred to in a licence. (travailleur)
- working level
working level[Repealed, SOR/2020-237, s. 1]
- working level month
working level month[Repealed, SOR/2020-237, s. 1]
(2) For the purpose of the definition dosimetry service in section 2 of the Act, a dosimetry service is a facility that is licensed by the Commission to measure and monitor radiation doses.
(3) For the purpose of the definition nuclear energy worker in section 2 of the Act, the prescribed limit for the general public is 1 mSv per calendar year.
2 (1) Subject to subsection (2), these Regulations apply generally for the purposes of the Act.
(2) These Regulations do not apply to a licensee in respect of a dose of radiation received by or committed to a person
(a) in the course of the person’s examination, diagnosis or treatment, as directed by a medical practitioner who is qualified to examine, diagnose or treat the person under the applicable provincial legislation;
(b) as a result of the person’s voluntary participation in a biomedical research study supervised by a medical practitioner who is qualified to provide such supervision under the applicable provincial legislation; or
(c) while the person is acting as a caregiver.
- SOR/2007-208, s. 5
- SOR/2020-237, s. 2
Obligations of Licensees and Nuclear Energy Workers
Administration of Nuclear Substance for Medical Purposes
3 When a nuclear substance is administered to a person for therapeutic purposes, the licensee must inform the person of methods for reducing the exposure of others — including the caregiver or anyone else providing care and assistance — to radiation from the person.
- SOR/2007-208, s. 6
- SOR/2020-237, s. 3
Radiation Protection Program
4 Every licensee must implement a radiation protection program and must, as part of that program,
(a) keep the effective dose and equivalent dose received by and committed to persons as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social and economic factors, through the implementation of
(i) management control over work practices,
(ii) personnel qualification and training,
(iii) control of occupational and public exposure to radiation, and
(iv) planning for unusual situations; and
(b) ascertain the quantity and concentration of any nuclear substance released as a result of the licensed activity
(i) by direct measurement as a result of monitoring, or
(ii) if the time and resources required for direct measurement as a result of monitoring outweigh the usefulness of ascertaining the quantity and concentration using that method, by estimating them.
Ascertainment and Recording of Doses
5 (1) For the purpose of keeping a record of doses of radiation in accordance with section 27 of the Act, every licensee must ascertain and record the magnitude of exposure to radon progeny of each person referred to in that section, as well as the effective dose and equivalent dose received by and committed to that person.
(2) A licensee must ascertain the magnitude of exposure to radon progeny and the effective dose and equivalent dose
(a) by direct measurement as a result of monitoring; or
(b) if the time and resources required for direct measurement as a result of monitoring outweigh the usefulness of ascertaining the amount of exposure and doses using that method, by estimating them.
6 (1) In this section, action level means a specific dose of radiation or other parameter that, if reached, may indicate a loss of control of part of a licensee’s radiation protection program and triggers a requirement for specific action to be taken.
(2) When a licensee becomes aware that an action level referred to in the licence for the purpose of this subsection has been reached, the licensee must
(a) conduct an investigation to establish the cause for reaching the action level;
(b) identify and take action to restore the effectiveness of the radiation protection program implemented in accordance with section 4; and
(c) notify the Commission within the period specified in the licence.
Provision of Information
7 (1) Every licensee must inform each nuclear energy worker, in writing,
(a) of the fact that the worker is a nuclear energy worker;
(b) of the risks associated with radiation to which the worker may be exposed in the course of their work;
(c) of the applicable effective dose limits and equivalent dose limits prescribed by sections 13 to 15;
(d) of the worker’s radiation dose levels, received on an annual basis; and
(e) of the worker’s responsibilities during an emergency and the risks associated with radiation to which the worker may be exposed during the control of an emergency.
(2) Every licensee must inform each female nuclear energy worker, in writing,
(a) of the risks associated with the exposure of embryos and fetuses to radiation and the risks to breastfed infants from the intake of nuclear substances;
(b) of the importance of informing the licensee, as soon as feasible, in writing, that the female nuclear energy worker is pregnant or breastfeeding;
(c) of the rights of a pregnant nuclear energy worker and the rights of a breastfeeding nuclear energy worker under section 11; and
(d) of the applicable effective dose limits for pregnant nuclear energy workers prescribed by section 13.
(3) Every licensee must obtain from each nuclear energy worker who is informed of the matters referred to in paragraphs (1)(a) and (b) and subsection (2) a written acknowledgement that the worker has received the information.
Requirement to Use Licensed Dosimetry Service
8 Every licensee must use a licensed dosimetry service to measure and monitor the doses of radiation received by and committed to nuclear energy workers who have a reasonable probability of receiving
(a) an effective dose that is greater than 5 mSv in a one-year dosimetry period; or
(b) an equivalent dose to the skin, or the hands and feet, that is greater than 50 mSv in a one-year dosimetry period.
Collection of Personal Information
9 If a licensee collects personal information, as defined in section 3 of the Privacy Act, that may be required to be disclosed to the Commission, another government institution, as defined in that section, or a licensed dosimetry service, the licensee must inform the person to whom the information relates of the purpose for which it is being collected.
Nuclear Energy Workers
10 Every nuclear energy worker shall, on request by the licensee, inform the licensee of the worker’s
(a) given names, surname and any previous surname;
(b) Social Insurance Number;
(d) date, province and country of birth; and
(e) dose record for the current one-year and five-year dosimetry periods.
- SOR/2007-208, s. 7(E)
Pregnant and Breastfeeding Nuclear Energy Workers
11 (1) On being informed by a female nuclear energy worker, in writing, that she is pregnant, the licensee must, in order to comply with section 13, make any accommodation that will not result in costs or business inconvenience constituting undue hardship to the licensee.
(2) On being informed by a female nuclear energy worker, in writing, that she is breastfeeding an infant, the licensee must, in order to limit intakes of nuclear substances by the worker, make any accommodation to the working conditions that will not result in costs or business inconvenience constituting undue hardship to the licensee.
- SOR/2007-208, s. 8(F)
- SOR/2020-237, s. 11
Radiation Dose Limits
- SOR/2020-237, s. 12(F)
12 (1) [Repealed, SOR/2020-237, s. 13]
(2) For the purposes of sections 13 and 14, doses of radiation include those received from X-rays or other man-made sources of radiation.
Effective Dose Limits
13 (1) Every licensee must ensure that the effective dose received by and committed to a person described in column 1 of the table to this subsection, during the period set out in column 2, does not exceed the effective dose set out in column 3.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Item Person Period Effective Dose (mSv) 1 Nuclear energy worker, including a female nuclear energy worker who is breastfeeding and a female nuclear energy worker who is pregnant but who has not yet informed the licensee in writing that she is pregnant (a) One-year dosimetry period 50 (b) Five-year dosimetry period 100 2 Pregnant nuclear energy worker who has informed the licensee in writing that she is pregnant Balance of the pregnancy starting from the date on which the licensee has been informed of the pregnancy 4 3 Person who is not a nuclear energy worker One calendar year 1
(2) [Repealed, SOR/2020-237, s. 14]
(3) [Repealed, SOR/2020-237, s. 14]
(4) [Repealed, SOR/2020-237, s. 14]
(5) For the purpose of subsection (1), where the end of a dosimeter-wearing period or a bioassay-sampling period does not coincide with the end of a dosimetry period set out in column 2 of the table to that subsection, the licensee may extend or reduce the dosimetry period to a maximum of two weeks so that the end of the dosimetry period coincides with the end of the dosimeter-wearing period or biossay-sampling period, as the case may be.
Equivalent Dose Limits
14 (1) Every licensee must ensure that the equivalent dose received by and committed to an organ or tissue set out in column 1 of the table to this subsection, of a person described in column 2, during the period set out in column 3, does not exceed the equivalent dose set out in column 4.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Item Organ or Tissue Person Period Equivalent Dose (mSv) 1 Lens of an eye (a) Nuclear energy worker One-year dosimetry period 150 (b) Any other person One calendar year 15 2 Skin (a) Nuclear energy worker One-year dosimetry period 500 (b) Any other person One calendar year 50 3 Hands and feet (a) Nuclear energy worker One-year dosimetry period 500 (b) Any other person One calendar year 50
(2) For the purpose of subsection (1), where a dosimeter-wearing period or a bioassay-sampling period extends beyond the end of a dosimetry period set out in column 3 of the table to that subsection, the period is extended to the end of the dosimeter-wearing or bioassay-sampling period or by two weeks, whichever extension is shorter.
(3) When skin is unevenly irradiated, the equivalent dose received by the skin is the average equivalent dose over the 1 cm2 area that received the highest equivalent dose.
15 (1) The effective dose limits and equivalent dose limits prescribed in sections 13 and 14 do not apply to a person participating in the control of an emergency.
(2) A licensee who requests a person to participate in the control of an emergency shall ensure that the person does not receive an effective dose greater than 50 mSv or an equivalent dose to the skin greater than 500 mSv unless that person is taking an emergency action described in Column 1 of the table to subsection (3).
(3) A licensee who requests a person participate in the control of an emergency shall ensure, if that person takes an emergency action described in Column 1 of the table to this subsection, that the person does not receive an effective dose greater than that described in Column 2 or an equivalent dose to the skin greater than that described in Column 3.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Item Action Effective dose (mSv) Equivalent dose to the skin (mSv) 1 Actions to minimize dose consequences, for members of the public, associated with the release of radioactive material 100 1 000 2 Actions to prevent health effects of radiation that are fatal or life-threatening, or that result in permanent injury 500 5 000 3 Actions to prevent the development of conditions that could significantly affect people and the environment 500 5 000
(4) If, on the request of a licensee, a person takes actions described in more than one item of the table to subsection (3), the licensee shall ensure that the effective dose received by that person does not exceed 500 mSv and that the equivalent dose to the skin received by that person does not exceed 5 000 mSv.
(5) A licensee shall limit the effective dose and equivalent dose received by and committed to persons participating in the control of an emergency to as low as is reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into account.
(6) A licensee shall notify as soon as feasible the person who received the dose of radiation and the Commission in the event that the licensee becomes aware that any of the dose limits prescribed in subsection (2), (3) or (4) may have been exceeded.
(7) A licensee shall not request that a pregnant woman participate in the control of an emergency.
(8) The dose limits prescribed by subsections (2), (3) and (4) and sections 13 and 14 may be exceeded by a person who acts voluntarily to save or protect human life.
- SOR/2017-199, s. 1
When Dose Limit Exceeded
16 When a licensee becomes aware that a dose of radiation received by or committed to a person or an organ or tissue may have exceeded an applicable dose limit prescribed by section 13 or 14, the licensee must
(a) immediately notify the person and the Commission of the dose;
(b) require the person to leave any work that is likely to add to the dose if the person may have or has received a dose that exceeds a dose limit for a nuclear energy worker;
(c) conduct an investigation to determine the magnitude of the dose and to establish the causes of the exposure;
(d) identify and take any action required to prevent the occurrence of a similar incident; and
(e) within 21 days after becoming aware that the dose limit has been exceeded, report to the Commission the results of the investigation or the progress that has been made in conducting it.
- SOR/2017-199, s. 2
- SOR/2020-237, s. 16
Authorization of Return to Work
17 When the Commission or a designated officer authorized under paragraph 37(2)(h) of the Act authorizes the return to work of a person referred to in section 16, the authorization may specify conditions to protect the health and safety of the person.
- SOR/2017-199, s. 3
Application for Licence to Operate
18 An application for a licence to operate a dosimetry service must contain the following information in addition to the information required by section 3 of the General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations:
(a) a description of the proposed operation of the dosimetry service;
(b) the proposed management system;
(c) the types of dosimetry services proposed to be provided;
(d) the precision, accuracy and reliability of the dosimetry services to be provided; and
(e) the proposed qualification requirements and training program for workers.
Obligations of Licensees
19 Every licensee who operates a dosimetry service shall file with the National Dose Registry of the Department of Health, at a frequency specified in the licence and in a form compatible with the Registry, the following information with respect to each nuclear energy worker for whom it has measured and monitored a dose of radiation:
(a) the worker’s given names, surname and any previous surname;
(b) the worker’s Social Insurance Number;
(c) the worker’s sex;
(d) the worker’s job category;
(e) the date, province and country of birth of the worker;
(f) the amount of exposure of the worker to radon progeny; and
(g) the effective dose and equivalent dose received by and committed to the worker.
Labelling and Signs
Labelling of Containers and Devices
20 (1) No person shall possess a container or device that contains a nuclear substance unless the container or device is labelled with
(a) the radiation warning symbol set out in Schedule 3 and the words “RAYONNEMENT — DANGER — RADIATION”; and
(b) the name, quantity, date of measurement and form of the nuclear substance in the container or device.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of a container or device
(a) that is an essential component for the operation of the nuclear facility at which it is located;
(b) that is used to hold nuclear substances for current or immediate use and is under the continuous direct observation of the licensee;
(c) in which the quantity of nuclear substances is less than or equal to the exemption quantity; or
(d) that is used exclusively for transporting nuclear substances and labelled in accordance with the Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations, 2015; and
(e) that contains a radium luminous compound, provided that radium is the only nuclear substance in the device and the device is intact and has not been tampered with.
(3) Paragraph (1)(b) does not apply in respect of a container that is used to temporarily hold nuclear substances.
- SOR/2015-145, s. 46
- SOR/2020-237, s. 19
Posting of Signs at Boundaries and Points of Access
21 (1) Every licensee must post and keep posted, at the boundary of and at every point of access to an area, room, vehicle or enclosure, a durable and legible sign that bears the radiation warning symbol set out in Schedule 3 and the words “RAYONNEMENT — DANGER — RADIATION”, if
(a) there is a nuclear substance in a quantity greater than 100 times its exemption quantity in the area, room, vehicle or enclosure; or
(b) there is a reasonable probability that a person in the area, room, vehicle or enclosure will be exposed to a dose rate greater than 25 µSv/h.
(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of a vehicle containing a consignment, as defined in the Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations, 2015.
- SOR/2007-208, s. 9
- SOR/2020-237, s. 20
Use of Radiation Warning Symbol
22 Whenever the radiation warning symbol set out in Schedule 3 is used,
(a) it shall be
(i) fully visible,
(ii) of a size appropriate for the size of the container or device to which it is affixed or attached, or the area, room or enclosure in respect of which it is posted,
(iii) in the proportions depicted in Schedule 3, and
(iv) oriented with one blade pointed downward and centred on the vertical axis; and
(b) no wording shall be superimposed on it.
- SOR/2007-208, s. 10
Frivolous Posting of Signs
23 No person shall post or keep posted a sign that indicates the presence of radiation, a nuclear substance or prescribed equipment at a place where the radiation, nuclear substance or prescribed equipment indicated on the sign is not present.
Records to Be Kept by Licensees
- SOR/2020-237, s. 21(F)
24 (1) Every licensee must keep a record of the name and job category of each nuclear energy worker.
(2) Every licensee must keep a record of doses of radiation and retain it for a period ending on the fifth anniversary of the day on which the information is collected.
Radiation Detection and Measurement Instrumentation
25 Every licensee must ensure that instruments and equipment that are used for radiation measurements are selected, tested and calibrated for their intended use.
Coming into Force
26 These Regulations come into force on the day on which they are approved by the Governor in Council.
Organ or Tissue Weighting Factors
|Column 1||Column 2|
|Item||Organ or Tissue||Weighting Factor|
|1||Gonads (testes or ovaries)||0.08|
|2||Red bone marrow||0.12|
|11||SkinFootnote for Organ or Tissue Weighting Factors1||0.01|
|15||All organs and tissues not listed in items 1 to 14 (remainder organs and tissues) collectively, namely the adrenals, extra-thoracic region, gallbladder, heart, kidneys, lymphatic nodes, muscle, oral mucosa, pancreas, small intestine, spleen, thymus and prostate or uterus/cervixFootnote for Organ or Tissue Weighting Factors2,Footnote for Organ or Tissue Weighting Factors3||0.12|
Return to footnote 1The weighting factor for skin applies only when the skin of the whole body is exposed.
Return to footnote 2The weighting factor for the remainder organs and tissues applies to the arithmetic mean dose of the 13 remainder organs and tissues.
Return to footnote 3Hands, feet and the lens of an eye have no weighting factor.
Radiation Weighting Factors
|Column 1||Column 2|
|Item||Type of Radiation||Weighting Factor|
|1||Photons, all energies||1|
|2||Electrons and muons, all energiesFootnote for Radiation Weighting Factors1||1|
|3||Protons and charged pions||2|
|4||Alpha particles, fission fragments and heavy ions||20|
|5||Neutrons||A continuous function of neutron energyFootnote for Radiation Weighting Factors2|
Return to footnote 1Excluding Auger electrons emitted from nuclei bound to DNA.
Return to footnote 2Radiation weighting factors for these neutrons may also be obtained by referring to the continuous curve shown in Figure 1, and Equation 4.3, on page 66 of the English version of The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 103, published in 2007.
The three blades and the central disk of the symbol shall be
(a) magenta or black; and
(b) located on a yellow background.
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