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Expropriation Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. E-21)

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Act current to 2022-07-13 and last amended on 2022-06-23. Previous Versions

PART IExpropriation (continued)

Acquisition and Abandonment of Land (continued)

Marginal note:Where offer accepted

 Where an offer of compensation has been made to any person under section 16, the full amount thereof shall, forthwith on the acceptance of the offer, be paid to that person.

  • R.S., c. 16(1st Supp.), s. 15

Marginal note:Determination respecting title

  •  (1) If the Attorney General of Canada, at any time after the registration of a notice of confirmation, is in doubt as to the persons who had any estate, interest or right in the land to which the notice relates or as to its nature or extent, the Attorney General of Canada may apply to the Court to make a determination respecting the state of the title to the land or any part of the land immediately before the registration of the notice, and to adjudge who had an estate, interest or right in the land at that time, and its nature and extent.

  • Marginal note:Hearing

    (2) An application under this section shall in the first instance be made ex parte and the Court shall fix a time and place for the hearing of the persons concerned and give directions as to

    • (a) the persons who are to be served with the notice of the hearing, the contents of the notice and the manner of service thereof;

    • (b) the material and information to be submitted by the Attorney General of Canada or any other persons; and

    • (c) such other matters as the Court considers necessary.

  • Marginal note:Adjudication

    (3) After the hearing under subsection (2), the Court shall either adjudge for the purposes of this Part what persons had any estate, interest or right in the land to which the notice of confirmation relates immediately before the registration of the notice, and its nature and extent, or direct an issue or issues to be tried for the purpose of enabling the Court to make such an adjudication.

  • Marginal note:Effect of adjudication

    (4) An adjudication made by the Court for the purposes of this Part is deemed to be a final judgment of the Court and, subject to variation on appeal, if any, to finally determine for all purposes of this Part what persons had any estate, interest or right in the land to which the notice of confirmation relates immediately before the registration of the notice, and its nature and extent.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 18
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 138

Marginal note:Right of Crown to physical possession

  •  (1) Despite section 15, the Crown becomes entitled to take physical possession or make use of any land to which a notice of confirmation relates, to the extent of the expropriated interest or right, only at such of the following times as is applicable:

    • (a) at the time of the registration of the notice of confirmation, if at that time no other person who was the owner or holder of an interest or right in the land immediately before the registration of the notice of confirmation is in occupation of the land;

    • (b) at such time, if any, after the registration of the notice of confirmation as physical possession or use of the land to the extent of the expropriated interest or right is given up to the Crown without any notice under paragraph (c) having been sent to the persons described in that paragraph; or

    • (c) in any other case, at any time after the registration of the notice of confirmation that

      • (i) the Minister has sent a notice to each of the persons appearing to have had any estate, interest or right in the land at the time of the registration of the notice of confirmation, so far as the Attorney General of Canada has been able to ascertain them, or, if an application has been made under section 18 and has been finally disposed of, to each of the persons adjudged to have had an estate, interest or right in the land immediately before the registration of the notice of confirmation, that physical possession or use is required by the Crown on and after the expiration of any period that is specified in the notice, being not less than 90 days after the day on which the notice is sent to each of those persons, and either that period has expired or physical possession or use has been given up to the Crown before the expiration of that period, and

      • (ii) the Minister has made an offer under section 16 to each of the persons then entitled to compensation under this Part in respect of an expropriated interest or right.

  • Marginal note:If possession by Crown urgently required

    (2) If, at any time before or after a notice of confirmation has been registered, the Governor in Council is of the opinion that the physical possession or use by the Crown of the land to which the notice relates to the extent of the expropriated interest or right or interest or right intended to be expropriated is, by reason of special circumstances, urgently required, the Governor in Council may direct

    • (a) that there be substituted for the 90 days referred to in paragraph (1)(c) any lesser number of days that in his or her opinion the circumstances require; or

    • (b) if an application has been made under section 18 but has not been finally disposed of, that physical possession or use may be taken or made by the Crown despite the fact that no offer has then been made under section 16.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 19
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 139

Marginal note:Intention to abandon expropriation — right of election to accept or reject abandonment

  •  (1) If, at any time before any compensation is paid in respect of an expropriated interest or right, the Minister is of the opinion that the interest or right is not or is no longer required by the Crown for a public work or other public purpose, or that a more limited interest or right only is so required, the Minister may give notice that he or she intends to abandon the interest or right or the remainder of the interest or rights, as the case may be, by causing a copy of the notice to be sent to each of the persons mentioned in paragraph 19(1)(c), each of whom may, within 30 days after the day a copy of the notice was sent to them, serve on the Minister a notice in writing that they elect to

    • (a) accept the abandonment, and have the interest or right or the remainder of the interest or rights revest in them to the extent that the abandonment would operate so that the interest or right or the remainder would revest in them; or

    • (b) reject the abandonment.

  • Marginal note:If election to accept abandonment

    (2) If each of the persons to whom a notice is sent under subsection (1) serves a notice on the Minister under that subsection that they elect to accept the abandonment, the Minister may cause a notice of abandonment of the expropriated interest or right or the remainder of the interest or rights, as the case may be, to be sent to each of those persons and to the Attorney General of Canada, who shall immediately confirm the abandonment by causing the notice to be registered in the office of the registrar where the notice of confirmation was registered.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 20
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 139

Marginal note:Effect of confirmation of abandonment

 If an expropriated interest or right or the remainder of the interest in land or immovable real rights is confirmed to be abandoned, the expropriated interest or right then revests in the persons from whom it was taken or the persons entitled to claim on their behalf or under their direction, or the land revests in those persons subject to the more limited interest or right in the land retained by the Crown, as the case may be.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 21
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 139

Marginal note:Duties of registrar

 Every registrar shall receive and permanently preserve in their office any notices and plans that the Attorney General of Canada causes to be registered under this Part, and shall endorse on the notices and plans the day, hour and minute when they were received as the time of registration and make any entries in the records or registers that will make their registration public.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 22
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 140(E)

Marginal note:Notice conclusive except against Crown

 Unless questioned by the Crown,

  • (a) a document purporting to be signed by the Minister shall be deemed to have been so signed;

  • (b) it shall be deemed that

    • (i) all of the interests or rights to which a notice of intention relates are,

    • (ii) a more limited interest or right only to which a notice of confirmation relates is, or

    • (iii) an interest or right stated in a notice of abandonment to be abandoned or the remainder of the interest or rights, as the case may be, is not or is no longer,

    in the opinion of the Minister required by the Crown for a public work or other public purpose; and

  • (c) it shall be deemed that, on being caused to be registered by the Attorney General of Canada in the office of the registrar where a notice of intention to expropriate an interest in land or immovable real right was registered, a document purporting to be a notice of confirmation of the intention to expropriate that interest or right or a more limited interest or right only in the land is a notice of confirmation of that intention then registered in accordance with this Part.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 23
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 141

Marginal note:Evidence of notice and registration

 A document purporting to be certified by a registrar to be a true copy of a notice or plan registered under this Part at a time stated in the certificate is, without proof of the official character or signature of the registrar, evidence of the facts stated therein and of the registration of the notice or plan at the time so stated.

  • R.S., c. 16(1st Supp.), s. 22

Compensation

Marginal note:Right to compensation

  •  (1) Compensation is to be paid by the Crown to each person who, immediately before the registration of a notice of confirmation, was the owner or holder of an estate, interest or right in the land to which the notice relates, to the extent of their expropriated interest or right, the amount of which compensation is equal to the aggregate of

    • (a) the value of the expropriated interest or right at the time of its taking, and

    • (b) the amount of any decrease in value of the remaining property of the owner or holder, as determined under section 27.

  • Marginal note:Time as of which value to be determined

    (2) For the purposes of this section and sections 26 and 27, the time of the taking of an expropriated interest or right is,

    • (a) if an election is made under subsection (3) by the owner or holder of the interest or right, the time specified by the owner or holder in their election; and

    • (b) in any other case, the time when the notice of confirmation was registered.

  • Marginal note:Election to have the value of the interest or right determined

    (3) If no copy of a notice of confirmation was sent to a person whose name is set out in the report of the Attorney General of Canada referred to in subsection 5(2) or who served an objection on the Minister under section 9 until a time more than 90 days after the day on which the notice is registered, that person may, at any time before any compensation is paid to them in respect of any expropriated interest or right of which they were the owner or holder immediately before the registration of the notice of confirmation, elect to have the value of the interest or right determined, as specified by them in their election, at either

    • (a) the time when the notice of confirmation was registered; or

    • (b) the time when the copy of the notice of confirmation was sent to them.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 25
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 142

Marginal note:Rules for determining value

  •  (1) The rules set out in this section shall be applied in determining the value of an expropriated interest or right.

  • Marginal note:Market value defined

    (2) Subject to this section, the value of an expropriated interest or right is its market value, being the amount that would have been paid for the interest or right if, at the time of its taking, it had been sold in the open market by a willing seller to a willing buyer.

  • Marginal note:If owner or holder required to give up occupation

    (3) If the owner or holder of an expropriated interest or right was in occupation of any land at the time the notice of confirmation was registered and, as a result of the expropriation, it has been necessary for them to give up occupation of the land, the value of the expropriated interest or right is the greater of

    • (a) the market value of that interest or right determined as set out in subsection (2), and

    • (b) the aggregate of

      • (i) the market value of that interest or right determined on the basis that the use to which the expropriated interest or right was being put at the time of its taking was its highest and best use, and

      • (ii) the costs, expenses and losses arising out of or incidental to the owner’s or holder’s disturbance, including moving to other premises, but if those costs, expenses and losses cannot practically be estimated or determined, there may be allowed in their place a percentage, not more than 15, of the market value determined as set out in subparagraph (i),

      plus the value to the owner or holder of any element of special economic advantage to them arising out of or incidental to their occupation of the land, to the extent that no other provision is made by this paragraph for the inclusion of that element in determining the value of the expropriated interest or right.

  • Marginal note:If Crown has taken physical possession of land

    (4) If the Crown has taken physical possession or made use of the land referred to in subsection (3) on the expiration of a period of notice to the owner or holder shorter than the 90 days mentioned in paragraph 19(1)(c), there shall be added to the value of the expropriated interest or right otherwise determined under this section an additional amount equal to 10 per cent of that value.

  • Marginal note:If specially designed building erected on land

    (5) Despite subsection (3), if any parcel of land to which a notice of confirmation relates had any building or other structure erected on it that was specially designed for use for the purpose of a school, hospital, municipal institution or religious or charitable institution or for any similar purpose, the use of which building or other structure for that purpose by the owner or holder has been rendered impracticable as a result of the expropriation, the value of the expropriated interest or right is, if that interest or right was and, but for the expropriation, would have continued to be used for that purpose and at the time of its taking there was no general demand or market for that interest or right for that purpose, the greater of

    • (a) the market value of the expropriated interest or right determined as set out in subsection (2), and

    • (b) the aggregate of

      • (i) the cost of any reasonably alternative interest in land or immovable real right for that purpose, and

      • (ii) the cost, expenses and losses arising out of or incidental to moving to and re-establishment on other premises, but if those costs, expenses and losses cannot practically be estimated or determined, there may instead be allowed a percentage, not exceeding 15, of the cost referred to in subparagraph (i),

      minus the amount by which the owner or holder has improved, or may reasonably be expected to improve, their position through re-establishment on other premises.

  • Marginal note:If Crown has taken physical possession of land

    (6) If the Crown has taken physical possession or made use of the parcel of land referred to in subsection (5) on the expiration of a period of notice to the owner or holder shorter than the 90 days mentioned in paragraph 19(1)(c), there shall be added to the value of the expropriated interest or right otherwise determined under this section an additional amount equal to 10 per cent of that value.

  • Marginal note:Additional factors

    (7) For the purposes of subparagraphs (3)(b)(ii) and (5)(b)(ii), consideration shall be given to the time and circumstances in which a former owner or holder was allowed to continue in occupation of the land after the Crown became entitled to take physical possession or make use of it, and to any assistance given by the Minister to enable the former owner or holder to seek and obtain alternative premises.

  • Marginal note:Land used for residence

    (8) If an expropriated interest or right was, immediately before the registration of a notice of confirmation, being used by its owner or holder for the purposes of their residence and the value of the interest or right otherwise determined under this section is less than the minimum amount sufficient to enable the owner or holder, at the earlier of

    • (a) the time of payment to them of any compensation in respect of the interest or right, otherwise than pursuant to any offer made to them under section 16, and

    • (b) the time when the Crown became entitled to take physical possession or make use of the land to the extent of the expropriated interest or right,

    to relocate their residence in or on premises reasonably equivalent to the premises expropriated, there shall be added to the value of the interest or right otherwise determined under this section the amount by which that minimum amount exceeds that value.

  • Marginal note:Moving and relocation expenses of lessee

    (9) If an expropriated interest or right was, immediately before the registration of a notice of confirmation, owned or held by a lessee, there shall be substituted for the amount determined under subparagraph (3)(b)(ii) or (5)(b)(ii), or the amount by which the minimum amount referred to in subsection (8) exceeds the value of the interest or right referred to in the notice of confirmation otherwise determined under this section, as the case may be, any part of that amount that is appropriate having regard to

    • (a) the length of the term of the lease and the portion of the term remaining at the time at which the determination is relevant;

    • (b) any right or reasonable prospect of renewal of the term that the lessee had; and

    • (c) any investment in the land by the lessee and the nature of any business carried on by them on the land.

  • Marginal note:Land subject to security interest or real security

    (10) If an expropriated interest or right was, immediately before the registration of a notice of confirmation, subject to an interest in land or immovable real right held by its owner or holder as security only, in this subsection called a “security interest” or, in Quebec, a “real security”,

    • (a) the value of the expropriated interest or right is the aggregate of

      • (i) the value of the interest or right determined under this section as though it had not been subject to any security interest or real security, and

      • (ii) the amount of any loss or anticipated loss to the owner or holder of the expropriated interest or right resulting from a difference in rates of interest during the remainder of the period for which any principal amount payable under the terms of the security was advanced, that difference to be calculated on the basis of an assumed rate of interest not greater than the prevailing rate of interest for an equivalent security, to the extent that no other provision is made by this section for the inclusion of an amount in respect of the loss or anticipated loss in determining the value of the expropriated interest or right,

      less the value of each security interest or real security to which the expropriated interest or right was subject, determined as provided in paragraph (b) but as though no amount were included by virtue of subparagraph (b)(ii);

    • (b) the value of the security interest or real security is the aggregate of

      • (i) the principal amount outstanding under the terms of the security, and any interest due or accrued under those terms, at the time of the registration of the notice of confirmation, and

      • (ii) an amount equal to three times the interest element, calculated as a monthly amount, of any payment of interest or of principal and interest payable under the terms of the security at the rate in effect under the terms of the security immediately before the registration of the notice of confirmation,

      and if the expropriated interest or right was subject to more than one security interest or real security, the value of each security interest or real security is to be determined in the order of its rank but in no case is the value of any security interest or real security to which an expropriated interest or right was subject to exceed the value of the expropriated interest or right otherwise determined under this section as though it had not been subject to any security interest or real security, less the value of each other security interest or real security the value of which is required by this subsection to be determined in accordance with its ranking; and

    • (c) if part only of the interest or a more limited right that was subject to a security interest or real security was expropriated, the value of the security interest or real security is that proportion of its value otherwise determined under this subsection as though the whole of the interest or a less limited right subject to the security interest or real security had been expropriated, that

      • (i) the value of the part only of the interest or a more limited right, otherwise determined under this subsection as though it had not been subject to any security interest or real security,

      is of

      • (ii) the value of the whole of the interest or a less limited right otherwise determined under this subsection as though it had not been subject to any security interest or real security

      less the same proportion of the interest element of any payment made under the terms of the security, between the time of the registration of the notice of confirmation and the time of payment of any compensation in respect of the security interest or real security otherwise than pursuant to any offer made to its owner or holder under section 16.

  • Marginal note:Factors not to be taken into account

    (11) In determining the value of an expropriated interest or right, no account is to be taken of

    • (a) any anticipated or actual use by the Crown of the land at any time after the expropriation;

    • (b) any value established or claimed to be established by or by reference to any transaction or agreement involving the lease or disposition of the interest or right, or any part of the interest or a more limited right, where the transaction or agreement was entered into after the registration of the notice of intention to expropriate;

    • (c) any increase or decrease in the value of the interest or right resulting from the anticipation of expropriation by the Crown or from any knowledge or expectation, before the expropriation, of the public work or other public purpose for which the interest or right was expropriated; or

    • (d) any increase in the value of the interest or right resulting from its having been put to a use that was contrary to law.

  • R.S., 1985, c. E-21, s. 26
  • 2011, c. 21, s. 142
 
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