54 (1) Subject to this section, the provisions of this Part that validate a debt obligation or compel its issue or reissue do not apply if the validation, issue or reissue of a debt obligation would result in overissue.
Marginal note:Identical debt obligation
(2) A person who is entitled to a validation or issue may, if there has been an overissue and if a valid debt obligation that is similar in all respects to the debt obligation involved in the overissue is reasonably available for purchase, compel the issuer to purchase and deliver that debt obligation against the surrender of the debt obligation that the person holds.
Marginal note:If identical debt obligation not available
(3) If a valid debt obligation that is similar in all respects to the debt obligation involved in the overissue is not reasonably available for purchase, the person who is entitled to the validation or issue may recover from the issuer an amount equal to the price the last purchaser for value paid for the invalid debt obligation.
Marginal note:Increase in capital
(4) The overissued debt obligations are valid from the date they were issued only if the issuer increases the number of its authorized debt obligations to a number equal to or greater than the number of debt obligations previously authorized plus the number of the debt obligations overissued.
Marginal note:Rules of action
55 The following rules apply in an action on a debt obligation:
(a) each signature on the debt obligation certificate or in a necessary endorsement is admitted unless specifically denied in the pleadings;
(b) a signature on the debt obligation is presumed to be genuine and authorized but, if the effectiveness of the signature is in issue, the burden of establishing that it is genuine and authorized is on the party claiming under the signature;
(c) if a signature is admitted or established, production of a debt obligation certificate entitles the holder to recover on it unless the other party establishes a defence or defect going to the validity of the debt obligation; and
(d) if the other party establishes the defence or defect, the plaintiff has the burden of establishing that the defence or defect is ineffective against the plaintiff or some other person under whom the claim is made.
Marginal note:Delivery of debt obligations
(2) Subsection (1) is subject to any agreement to the contrary, to any applicable Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, to any applicable regulation or to any applicable rule of a stock exchange or other regulatory body.
Marginal note:Incorporation by reference
57 (1) The terms of a debt obligation include those stated on the debt obligation and those incorporated by reference to another document, an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, a regulation, a rule or an order to the extent that the incorporated terms do not conflict with those stated on the debt obligation.
Marginal note:Purchaser without notice
(2) Subsection (1) applies to a good faith purchaser but the incorporation by reference is itself not notice of a defect to the purchaser even if the debt obligation expressly states that a person accepting it admits that notice.
Marginal note:Validity of debt obligation
58 A debt obligation is valid in the hands of a good faith purchaser.
59 Subject to section 62, the fact that a debt obligation is not genuine is a complete defence for the issuer even against a good faith purchaser.
60 All other defences of an issuer, including non-delivery and conditional delivery of a debt obligation, are ineffective against a good faith purchaser.
Marginal note:Deemed notice
Marginal note:Stale debt obligation
(2) A debt obligation becomes stale if
(a) the purchaser takes the debt obligation later than the prescribed period that is after
(b) the payment of money or the delivery of debt obligations is required in order to present or surrender the debt obligation, the money or debt obligations are available on the day for the payment or delivery and the purchaser takes the debt obligation later than the prescribed period that is after that day.
Marginal note:Unauthorized signature
Marginal note:Limited effectiveness
(2) An unauthorized signature on a debt obligation is effective in favour of a good faith purchaser if the signature was made by
(a) an authenticating trustee, transfer agent or other person entrusted by the issuer with the duty to sign the debt obligation, or similar debt obligations, or to prepare them for signing; or
(b) an employee of the issuer or a person referred to in paragraph (a) who handles the debt obligation in the ordinary course of their duties.
Marginal note:Completion of debt obligation
63 If a debt obligation contains the signatures necessary for its issue or transfer but is incomplete in another respect, any person may complete it in accordance with their authority.
64 A debt obligation that was completed incorrectly is enforceable by a good faith purchaser.
65 A completed debt obligation that was improperly altered, even if fraudulently altered, remains enforceable but only according to its original terms.
66 (1) A person signing a debt obligation as an authenticating trustee, transfer agent or other person entrusted by the issuer with the duty to sign the debt obligation guarantees to a good faith purchaser that
(2) Unless agreed otherwise, a person referred to in subsection (1) does not assume any further liability for the validity of the debt obligation.
Marginal note:Acquisition of rights
Marginal note:Claim free
(2) A good faith purchaser of a debt obligation acquires it free from any adverse claim.
Marginal note:No better position
(3) A purchaser who was a party to a fraud or illegality affecting a debt obligation or who, as a prior holder, had notice of an adverse claim does not have a better position by taking from a later good faith purchaser.
Marginal note:Limitation of the purchase
68 A purchaser acquires rights only to the extent of the interest or right purchased.
Marginal note:Deemed notice
(2) The mere writing of a name on a debt obligation is not a statement for the purposes of paragraph (1)(b).
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