Criminal Code

Version of section 145 from 2003-01-01 to 2008-05-28:

Marginal note:Escape and being at large without excuse
  •  (1) Every one who

    • (a) escapes from lawful custody, or

    • (b) is, before the expiration of a term of imprisonment to which he was sentenced, at large in or out of Canada without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on him,

    is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Failure to attend court

    (2) Every one who,

    • (a) being at large on his undertaking or recognizance given to or entered into before a justice or judge, fails, without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on him, to attend court in accordance with the undertaking or recognizance, or

    • (b) having appeared before a court, justice or judge, fails, without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on him, to attend court as thereafter required by the court, justice or judge,

    or to surrender himself in accordance with an order of the court, justice or judge, as the case may be, is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Failure to comply with condition of undertaking or recognizance

    (3) Every person who is at large on an undertaking or recognizance given to or entered into before a justice or judge and is bound to comply with a condition of that undertaking or recognizance directed by a justice or judge, and every person who is bound to comply with a direction ordered under subsection 515(12) or 522(2.1), and who fails, without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on that person, to comply with that condition or direction, is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Failure to appear or to comply with summons

    (4) Every one who is served with a summons and who fails, without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on him, to appear at a time and place stated therein, if any, for the purposes of the Identification of Criminals Act or to attend court in accordance therewith, is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Failure to comply with appearance notice or promise to appear

    (5) Every person who is named in an appearance notice or promise to appear, or in a recognizance entered into before an officer in charge or another peace officer, that has been confirmed by a justice under section 508 and who fails, without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on the person, to appear at the time and place stated therein, if any, for the purposes of the Identification of Criminals Act, or to attend court in accordance therewith, is guilty of

    • (a) an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or

    • (b) an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Failure to comply with conditions of undertaking

    (5.1) Every person who, without lawful excuse, the proof of which lies on the person, fails to comply with any condition of an undertaking entered into pursuant to subsection 499(2) or 503(2.1)

    • (a) is guilty of an indictable offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years; or

    • (b) is guilty of an offence punishable on summary conviction.

  • Marginal note:Idem

    (6) For the purposes of subsection (5), it is not a lawful excuse that an appearance notice, promise to appear or recognizance states defectively the substance of the alleged offence.

  • (7) [Repealed, R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 20]

  • Marginal note:Election of Crown under Contraventions Act

    (8) For the purposes of subsections (3) to (5), it is a lawful excuse to fail to comply with a condition of an undertaking or recognizance or to fail to appear at a time and place stated in a summons, an appearance notice, a promise to appear or a recognizance for the purposes of the Identification of Criminals Act if before the failure the Attorney General, within the meaning of the Contraventions Act, makes an election under section 50 of that Act.

  • Marginal note:Proof of certain facts by certificate

    (9) In any proceedings under subsection (2), (4) or (5), a certificate of the clerk of the court or a judge of the court before which the accused is alleged to have failed to attend or of the person in charge of the place at which it is alleged the accused failed to attend for the purposes of the Identification of Criminals Act stating that,

    • (a) in the case of proceedings under subsection (2), the accused gave or entered into an undertaking or recognizance before a justice or judge and failed to attend court in accordance therewith or, having attended court, failed to attend court thereafter as required by the court, justice or judge or to surrender in accordance with an order of the court, justice or judge, as the case may be,

    • (b) in the case of proceedings under subsection (4), a summons was issued to and served on the accused and the accused failed to attend court in accordance therewith or failed to appear at the time and place stated therein for the purposes of the Identification of Criminals Act, as the case may be, and

    • (c) in the case of proceedings under subsection (5), the accused was named in an appearance notice, a promise to appear or a recognizance entered into before an officer in charge or another peace officer, that was confirmed by a justice under section 508, and the accused failed to appear at the time and place stated therein for the purposes of the Identification of Criminals Act, failed to attend court in accordance therewith or, having attended court, failed to attend court thereafter as required by the court, justice or judge, as the case may be,

    is evidence of the statements contained in the certificate without proof of the signature or the official character of the person appearing to have signed the certificate.

  • Marginal note:Attendance and right to cross-examination

    (10) An accused against whom a certificate described in subsection (9) is produced may, with leave of the court, require the attendance of the person making the certificate for the purposes of cross-examination.

  • Marginal note:Notice of intention to produce

    (11) No certificate shall be received in evidence pursuant to subsection (9) unless the party intending to produce it has, before the trial, given to the accused reasonable notice of his intention together with a copy of the certificate.

  • R.S., 1985, c. C-46, s. 145;
  • R.S., 1985, c. 27 (1st Supp.), s. 20;
  • 1992, c. 47, s. 68;
  • 1994, c. 44, s. 8;
  • 1996, c. 7, s. 38;
  • 1997, c. 18, s. 3.