Choice of Proceedings
Marginal note:How contravention may be proceeded with
233. If a contravention can be proceeded with as a violation or as an offence, the Minister may commence proceedings in respect of that contravention as a violation or recommend that it be proceeded with as an offence, but it may be proceeded with only as one or the other.
Recovery of Debts
Marginal note:Debts due to Her Majesty
234. The following amounts constitute debts due to Her Majesty in right of Canada that may be recovered in a court of competent jurisdiction:
(a) unless a review of the amount of the penalty is requested under paragraph 232(1)(b), the amount of a penalty set out in a notice of violation, from the time the notice is served;
(b) the amount that a notice of default served under subsection 231.1(1) provides that a person is liable to pay, from the time the notice is served;
(c) the amount of a penalty determined by a member after a review under section 232.1, or decided by an appeal panel after an appeal under section 232.2, from the time of the respective determination or decision; and
(d) the amount of any reasonable expenses incurred in attempting to recover an amount referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (c).
- 2001, c. 26, s. 234, c. 29, s. 72.
235. (1) All or part of a debt referred to in section 234 in respect of which there is a default of payment may be certified by the Minister or the Tribunal, as the case may be.
(2) On production to the Federal Court, a certificate made under subsection (1) is to be registered in that Court and, when registered, has the same force and effect, and all proceedings may be taken on it, as if it were a judgment obtained in that Court for a debt of the amount specified in it and all reasonable costs and charges attendant in its registration.
- 2001, c. 26, s. 235, c. 29, s. 72.
Rules of Law about Violations
Marginal note:Violations are not offences
Marginal note:Common law principles
237. Every rule and principle of the common law that renders any circumstance a justification or an excuse in relation to a charge for an offence under a relevant provision applies in respect of a violation to the extent that it is not inconsistent with this Act.
Marginal note:Vicarious liability — Canadian maritime document holders
238. (1) The holder of a Canadian maritime document is liable for a violation that is committed in respect of any matter that relates to an activity or a requirement under that document, whether or not the person or vessel that actually committed the violation is identified or proceeded against in accordance with this Act.
Marginal note:Vicarious liability — acts of employees and agents
(2) A person or vessel is liable for a violation that is committed by an employee or agent of the person or vessel acting in the course of the employee’s employment or within the scope of the agent’s authority, whether or not the employee or agent who actually committed the violation is identified or proceeded against in accordance with this Act.
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